- Slides: 26
Sentence Types Understanding types of sentences and sentence structures
There are four types of sentences �The most common type of sentence is the DECLARATIVE sentence. �A declarative sentence “declares” or states something. �To declare: ﺃﻌﻠﻦ • 聲明 • declarar
Examples: �I am hungry. �Class starts at 6: 00 pm. �Summer ends next month. �The days are getting shorter.
Imperative Sentences �Imperative sentences give a command – tell someone to do something. �Often times, imperative sentences do not have a stated subject, but the subject is implied to be “you”. �Imperative: imperativo ● 迫切 ● ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻲ
Examples of Imperative Sentences �Close the door. �Get ready for school. �Pass me the pepper. �Each of these examples have “you” for the subject.
Analyzing the imperative sentence: �What is the subject and the verb of the following sentence? �“Don’t forget to take out the garbage tonight. ” �---Remember negatives are adverbs. We are left with “do” and “forget” as the verbs. �---The subject is the implied “you”. . . . so
Finishing up. . �(You) don’t forget to take out the garbage.
Interrogatory Sentences �Interrogatory sentences is another way of saying a sentence that asks a question. �They will always be followed by a question mark: �Examples: �Did you do the homework? �Are you going to make dinner tonight? �Did you enjoy the movie?
Finding the subject and verb �To find the subject and verb of a question, restate the sentence as a declarative sentence: �Did you do the homework? = You did do the homework. �Are you going to make dinner tonight? = �You are going to made dinner tonight. �Did you enjoy the movie? = You did enjoy the movie.
Exclamatory Sentences �An exclamatory sentence adds emphasis or emotion to either a declaratory or imperative sentence. �It will always be followed by an exclamation point (!) �Examples: �Don’t go in the kitchen! I just washed the floor. �Watch out! �I got an A on my test!
Sentence Structure �Sentence structure is divided into four types: �Simple sentences �Compound �Complex sentences Sentences �Compound/Complex Sentences
What is a sentence? �A sentence will always: � 1) � 2) � 3) � 4) � 5) Start with a capital letter Have a subject Have a verb Have a complete idea End with a period (. ), a question mark (? ), or an exclamation point (!)
Which of these is not a sentence? �We are going to get rain on Saturday. �Stop! �Because traffic was heavy. �Why were you so late?
The answer is. . . �“Because traffic was so heavy. ” � It starts with a capital letter � It has a subject (traffic) � It has a verb (was) � It ends in a period �BUT - - - it doesn’t have a complete thought or idea. Because traffic was so heavy. . . What? I was late? I drove a different way? I decided not to go?
Dependent and Independent Clauses �An INDEPENDENT clause is another word for a complete sentence. It is independent, or free, of anything else. It has a completed idea. �Clause: ﺟﻤﻠﺔ �Cláusula �條款
Dependent Clauses �A DEPENDENT clause do not complete an idea. You can recognize it because it starts with a dependent word. �Examples of Dependent words: � Because � While � During � Although � Since
Notice how there is no complete idea or thought: �Because I had already taken that class. �Since it was only four o’clock. �While the baby was sleeping. �If I only had more money.
Fragments Dependent clauses are considered to be fragments. A fragment is something that is not complete. Do you understand the difference between dependent and independent clauses?
Simple sentences �A simple sentence is a single independent clause. It has one idea. �Examples: � 1) Mario and Sam drove to New York City. � 2) I wish it would rain. � 3) My garden needs to be watered. � 4) Sarah studied and wrote her paper. � 5) Mo and Sam sanded and painted the cabinets.
Compound Sentences �Compound sentences are two (or more) independent clauses joined by a conjunction or semicolon. �Example: �Simple sentences: Mary cooked dinner. Mike did the dishes. �Compound: Mary cooked dinner, and Mike did the dishes. OR �Mary cooked dinner; Mike did the dishes.
Comma usage �When you connect two independent clauses together with a conjunction, put a comma before the conjunction. �It was raining, and I forgot to close the windows.
Your turn �Let’s practice compound sentences.
Complex Sentences �A COMPLEX sentence contains �One Independent Clause, and �At least one Dependent Clause �EXAMPLES: � If I had more money, I would take a vacation. � Because I was running late, I skipped dinner.
Comma Usage �NOTICE: �When a sentence starts with a dependent clause, you use a comma to separate it from the independent clause. �When a sentence starts with an independent clause, you DON’T use a comma to separate. �Because it was raining, I arrived late for work. �I arrived late for work because it was raining.
Your turn �Let’s practice some complex sentences:
Compound/Complex Sentences �These will contain at least: � Two independent clauses � At least one dependent clause � Example: �I drove to school because it was raining, and I couldn’t find a parking spot.