SENTENCE TYPES PART TWO ARABIC
Arabic Questions ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺃﺴﻠﻮﺏ Arabic questions have three distinguishing features: 1. They are formed by the use of interrogative particles ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺃﺪﻭﺍﺕ which occur initially in the questions. ﻋﻠ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻭﺻﻞ 2. The syntactic arrangement of the declarative statement is retained in the question. That is, there is no verb-subject inversion. ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﻫﻞ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ؟ 3. They always have a rising tone
Yes-No Questions 1. Affirmative Yes-No questions are formed by the use of one of two interrogative particles: ﻫﻞ and ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ 2. ﻫﻞ The particle ﻫﻞ is the counterpart of the English auxiliary (DO) ﺍﻟﻮﻟ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﺘ ﺍﻟﻮﻟ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ؟ ﻛﺘ ﻫﻞ Did the boy write a letter?
3. al-hamza ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ has the same function as that of hal ﻫﻞ It introduces a Yes-No question. ﺍﻟﺪﺭ؟ ﺃﻔﻬﻤ Did you understand the lesson?
4. Negative Yes-No questions are formed by the use of al-hamza ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ the interrogative particle plus a negative element. ﺃﻠﻢ ﺃﻜﺮﻣﻚ؟ Haven't I treated you hospitably? If the response is positive, one says: ﺃﻜﺮﻣﺘﻨﻲ ، ﺑﻠﻰ Indeed, you have. But if the response is negative, one says: ﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﺮﻣﻨﻲ ، ﻧﻌﻢ
5. Tag Questions Arabic has only one fixed grammatical structure that functions as a tag, whether the statement is positive or negative. It always has rising intonation. It is: ﺃﻠﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺬﻟ ؟ ﺃﻠﻴ ، ﺍﻟﻄﻔ ﻧﺎ
Wh-Questions Wh-questions are formed by the use of nouns of interrogation ﺃﺴﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ
(persons) who/whom ﺟﺎ؟ Who came? ﺭﺃﻴ؟ Whom did you see?
(ﻣﺘﻰ temporal): when ﺟﺎ؟ ﻣﺘﻰ When did he come? ﺃ (persons, things): which/what ﺣ؟ ﺍﻷﺼﺪﻗﺎﺀ ﺃ What type of friends do you like? ﺣ؟ ﺍﻟﻜﺘ ﺃ What type of books do you like?
ﺃﺍ / (ﺃﻴﻦ locative): where ﺍﻟﻮﻟ ؟ ﺫﻫ ﺃﻴ Where did the boy go? ﻟﻤﻦ whose/to whom ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎ ؟ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ Whose book is this?
/ ( ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ reason): why ﻧﺎ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺍ؟ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ Why did he sleep early? ﻛﻴ (manner): how ﻛﺘ ﻫﺬﺍ؟ ﻛﻴﻒ How did you write this?
( ﻛﻢ how + quantity) ﻛﻢ ﻭﻟﺪﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ؟ How many boys came? ﺛﻤ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ؟ ﻛﻢ How much does this book cost? ﻣﻜﺜ؟ ﻛﻢ How long did you stay?
Alternative Questions This type of questions is formed by the use of ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ and ﺃ ﺯﻳ ﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ؟ ﺃﻌﻨﺪ ﺷﺎﻳ ﺍﻡ ﻗﻬﻮﺓ ؟ ﺍﺗﺮﻳﺪ
The following differences hold between English and Arabic questions. 1. English question formation involves Do-support when no auxiliary is present in the statement, except when asking about the subject. This is not found in Arabic. 2. Only English question formation involves auxiliarysubject inversion, except when asking about the subject. In Arabic, the word order is not changed.
3. English has two types of tags, whereas Arabic has only one fixed structure that expresses the tag. 4. Arabic differs from English in the responses given to negative questions. English responses take either of two forms: (Yes) followed by a positive statement or (No) followed by a negative statement. In contrast, Arabic allows ﻧﻌﻢ to be followed by a negative statement.
5. English uses (How many) and (How much) to ask about count and noncount nouns, respectively, while Arabic does not make this distinction, ( )ﻛﻢ is used for both. How many books did he read? How much sugar does she want? ﻛﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ ﻗﺮﺃ؟ ﻻﻧﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ؟ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ
6. English (How many) is followed by a plural noun, while Arabic ( ﻛ ) is followed by a singular noun: How many books do you need? ﻛﺘﺎﺑ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ؟ ﻛﻢ
7. (Who) is used to ask about the subject, and (Whom) to ask about the object. In Arabic, ( )ﻣﻦ is used to ask about both: ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ؟ who came? (asking about subject) ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻴﺖ؟ whom did you see? (asking about object)