- Slides: 38
SENTENCE OR FRAGMENT?
AVOIDING SENTENCE FRAGMENTS v. Some groups of words, even though they have capital letters in the beginning and a period at the end, are not complete sentences. They are fragments.
FRAGMENT • Fragment- a group of words that do not express a complete thought. A fragment is only part of a sentence • In the early evening • Felt happy and relaxed • The sign in the corridor
FRAGMENT VS COMPLETE SENTENCE • A complete sentence always has a subject and a verb. A fragment does not. • A fragment can be a group of words with no subject • a group of words that include a possible subject but no verb • A group of words with a possible subject and only part of a possible verb • It can be a subordinate clause standing alone
EXAMPLES OF FRAGMENTS • In the early evening • Is a prepositional phrase so both a subject and verb need to be added • The flight arrived in the early evening.
• Felt happy and relaxed • What part of speech do we need to complete this sentence?
• We have the verb but we need a subject. • I felt happy and relaxed. • The sign in the corridor • What are we missing?
• A verb is needed. • The sign in the corridor is surprising. (verb and adjective) • The train coming around the bend. • What is missing?
• In order to be complete we needed to add a helping verb • The train was coming around the bend. • When she first smiled. • What is this fragment missing?
• This fragment need a complete independent clause to go along with the subordinate clause. • When she first smiled, the whole world seemed to light up.
• Complete worksheet pg 105 -106
• Avoiding Phrase Fragments • Pg 481 -482
A PHRASE BY ITSELF IS A FRAGMENT • A phrase should not be capitalized and punctuated as though it were a sentence • Types of phrases: • Preposition- begins with a preposition such as in, on, before, after, under, over, and to • Participial Phrase- usually begins with an “ing” or “ed” Ex. – jumping over the puddle, stuffed full of turkey Infinitive Phrase- begins with a verb • Ex. – to sleep, to jump. To stumble
INFINITIVE PHRASE/PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE The difference between a prepositional phrase and an infinitive phrase with to? ? The prepositional phrase has an object but no verb. The infinitive phrase has a verb I want to fly. Infinitive; there is no object I want to fly to the moon. Is a prepositional phrase; there is an object
AVOIDING CLAUSE FRAGMENTS • All clauses have subjects and verbs but some cannot stand alone as sentences • Clause fragments can be corrected in either two ways: • 1. attach the fragment to a nearby sentence • 2. add whatever words are needed to make it a sentence
EXAMPLES • The class enjoyed the poem. That I recited to them as part of my oral report. • Added to nearby sentence The class enjoyed the poem that I recited to them as part of my oral report. • I’ll play the game. If you play it too. • Added to nearby sentence I’ll play the game if you play it too
• Worksheet pg 107 -108
AVOIDING RUN ON SENTENCES • A fragment is an incomplete sentence. A run- on, on the other hand, is an over crowded sentence-one that has too much information. • Run On- 2 or more complete sentences that are not properly joined or separated
2 KIND OF RUN-ONS • 1. two sentences run together with no punctuation between them • Ex. I use our library often the reference section is my favorite part. • 2. Two or more sentences separated only by a comma • Ex. The Florida Keys are chain of small islands, they are located off the southern tip of Florida.
Complete worksheet pg 109 -110
CORRECTING RUN-ONS • -Usually occur because the writer is in a hurry and writing too fast • -Check your sentences carefully to see where one sentence ends and the other begins. • 1. Use an end mark to separate the sentences into two shorter sentences. • Be sure to use the correct end mark.
RUN-ON SENTENCE • In his search for a northeast passage to the Orient, Marco Polo finally reached northern China he made the name Cathay famous on his return to Italy. • Correct the above statement
• Answer- • In his search for a northeast passage to the Orient, Marco Polo finally reached northern China. He made the name Cathay famous on his return to Italy.
• Have you heard of James Cook, he sailed his ship the Endeavour to the East Indies in 1768. • Correct the above sentence.
ANSWER • Have you heard of James Cook? He sailed his ship the Endeavour to the East Indies in 1768.
• 2. Form a compound sentences by using a comma and a coordinating conjunction to join 2 or more independent clauses • My mother and father goes shopping on Saturdays, and I stay home and clean.
• 3. Form a compound sentence by using a semicolon to join to closely related independent clauses • The first train to the city leaves at 6: 15 A. M. ; the express doesn’t leave until an hour later.
Complete worksheet pg 111 -112
CORRECTING MISPLACED MODIFERS • Modifier-A word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to limit or qualify the meaning of another word or word group • When a modifier is placed too far away from the word it describes, it is called a displaced modifier. Because they are misplaced, such phrases and clauses modify the wrong word in a sentence.
• Misplaced modifier Ex. • We rented a house in the mountains with a view. • Corrected • In the mountains we rented a house with a view.
• Misplaced Modifier • Sailing into the harbor , the Statue of liberty was awe inspiring. • Sailing into the harbor should modify a person or a ship not the Statue of Liberty. It makes it seem as though the statue is doing the sailing. • Sailing into the harbor, Elizabeth found the Statue of Liberty awe inspiring. • Or • Sailing into the harbor, our ship provided an awe inspiring view of the Statue of Liberty.
• Complete Worksheet pg 113 -114
CORRECTING SENTENCES WITH MISPLACED MODIFIERS • The most common misplaced modifier is the prepositional phrase. • Ships called dhows were sailed by ancient Arabs. • Corrected • Ships called dhows, with triangular sails, were sailed by ancient Arabs.
PARTICIPIAL PHRASES ARE SOMETIMES USED AT THE BEGINNING OF A SENTENCE • Flying over the mountains, an electrical storm endangered our safety. • What is flying over the mountains? • Corrected • Flying over the mountains, our airplane was endangered by an electrical storm.
A MISPLACED ADJECTIVE CLAUSE SHOULD ALSO BE MOVED CLOSER TO THE WORD IT MODIFIES • I found the ring after several months of searching that my grandmother gave me. • Correct • After several months of searching , I found the ring that my grandmother gave me. • Complete worksheet pg 115 -116
SPECIAL PROBLEMS • Double Negatives- do not use two negative words in one sentence • Mary didn’t invite nobody. • I haven’t no time now. • She never told us nothing about her party.
CORRECTING DOUBLE NEGATIVES • 1. Mary didn’t invite anybody to the party. • Or • Mary invited no one to the party. • 2. I haven’t any time now. • Or • I have no time now. • 3. She never told us anything about her party. • Or • She told us nothing about her party.
• Complete worksheet pg 117 -118