Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine Department of Human

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Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine (Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology) Department of

Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine (Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology) Department of Anatomy, Histology and Developmental Biology Prof. Dr. Szél Ágoston study responsible Dr. Csáki Ágnes csaki. [email protected] semmelweis-univ. hu tutor Dr. Kocsis Katalin kocsis. [email protected] semmelweis-univ. hu http: //semmelweis. hu/anatomia/ Name: educatio Password: Semmelweis 1769 http: //humanmorfologia. semmelweis. hu/index. php? p=oktatas&mid=2 former “Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology” website

only the anatomical pages! Home page: http: //semmelweis. hu/anatomia Lectures Faculty of Pharmacy (GYTK)

only the anatomical pages! Home page: http: //semmelweis. hu/anatomia Lectures Faculty of Pharmacy (GYTK) Anatomy (Előadások)

Basic tissues Semmelweis University Faculty of Pharmacy 2019. 02. 11. Csáki Ágnes

Basic tissues Semmelweis University Faculty of Pharmacy 2019. 02. 11. Csáki Ágnes

Cells build up the human body. Tissues : are combination of similarly differentiated cells

Cells build up the human body. Tissues : are combination of similarly differentiated cells and their derivatives, the intercellular substances. They fulfil one or more specific functions. By convention tissues are divided into four types.

Basic tissues of the body I. Epithelium 1. Covering epithelia a. Simple epithelia b.

Basic tissues of the body I. Epithelium 1. Covering epithelia a. Simple epithelia b. Pseudostratified epithelia (incl. urothelium) b. Stratified epithelia 2. Glandular epithelia 3. Pigmented epithelia 4. Sensory epithelia II. IV. Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue

Most recent in vitro staining techniques Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining Haematoxylin and eosin

Most recent in vitro staining techniques Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining Haematoxylin and eosin staining protocol is used frequently in histology to examine thin sections of tissue. Haematoxylin stains cell nuclei blue, while eosin stains cytoplasm and connective tissue pink or red. Eosin is strongly absorbed by red blood cells, colouring them bright red. PAS staining Periodic acid-Schiff staining is used to demonstrating carbohydrates (glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycans) typically found in eg. connective tissues, mucus, and basal laminae. Silver staining impregnation the neural filaments reduce silver solution to metallic silver after formalin fixation. This method was discovered by Italian anatomist, Camillo Golgi, by using a reaction between silver nitrate and potassium dichromate, thus precipitating silver chromate in some cells. The chemical circumstances of impregnation decides either neuronal or glial element will be stained

EPITHELIUM NO intercellular material (or minimal) The cells are strongly atteched to each other

EPITHELIUM NO intercellular material (or minimal) The cells are strongly atteched to each other by different junctions NO vessels Cover internal-external body surfaces (covering epithelia) Produces different materials (glandular e. ) Takes part in sensation (sensory e. )

General features of epithelial cell 1 SURFACES: Apical (Luminal) Lateral Basal : Basement membrane

General features of epithelial cell 1 SURFACES: Apical (Luminal) Lateral Basal : Basement membrane (membrana basalis) On the basal side of the cells The cells are sitting on the membrane Function: Fixing Separation(epithelial cells from the connective tissue- carcinoma!!) Regeneration of the epithelium

General features of epithelial cell 2 Lateral surface: Cell adhesion molecules and structures Tight

General features of epithelial cell 2 Lateral surface: Cell adhesion molecules and structures Tight junction (zonula occludens) Zonula adherens Macula adherens (desmosome) Nexus (gap junction) Gap junction 2. Zonula occludens 3. Zonula adherens 4. Desmosome 5. Tonofilaments

General features of epithelial cell 3 Apical surface: Structures magnifying the surface: Mikrovilli (gut)

General features of epithelial cell 3 Apical surface: Structures magnifying the surface: Mikrovilli (gut) Stereocilia (male genitals): fingerlike projections of the membrane and actin filaments inside Movable surface specializations: kinocilium (respiratory syst. and some genitals): Cytoplasmic processes with actin filaments 9+2 pairs of microtubulus and dinein molecules stereocilium kinocilium

Classification of covering epithelia Surface epithelia are divided according to the shape of their

Classification of covering epithelia Surface epithelia are divided according to the shape of their cells into squamous, cuboid and columnar epithelium, and according to their layering, into simple and stratiefied (more than one layer) epithelia.

Simple squamous epithelium Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape. These

Simple squamous epithelium Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape. These cells are relatively inactive metabolically, and are associated with the diffusion of water, electrolytes, and other substances. mesothel endothel Places where squamous cells can be found include the alveoli of the lungs, the Bowman’s capsule of the kidney glomerulus, and the major cavities of the body (mesothel).

Simple cuboidal epithelium Cuboidal: As the name suggests, these cells have a shape similar

Simple cuboidal epithelium Cuboidal: As the name suggests, these cells have a shape similar to a cube, meaning its width is the same size as its height. The round nuclei of these cells are usually located in the center. Glands, tubules of the kidney Amnion of the embrio Simple cuboidal Tubulus proximalis Egyrétegű köbhám kivezetőcső

Simple columnar epithelium These cells are taller than they are wide. Simple columnar epithelium

Simple columnar epithelium These cells are taller than they are wide. Simple columnar epithelium is made up of a single layer of cells that are longer than they are wide. The nucleus is also closer to the base of the cell. The small intestine is a tubular organ lined with this type of tissue. The free surface of the columnar cell has tiny hairlike projections called microvilli. They increase the surface area for absorption. Stomach, intestine, gallbladder Egyrétegű hengerhám, gyomor Simple columnar

Pseudostratified, ciliated epithelia There is only a single layer of cells, but the position

Pseudostratified, ciliated epithelia There is only a single layer of cells, but the position of the nuclei gives the impression that it is stratified. All the cells touch the basal membrane – some of them do not reach the lumen May exhibit surface specialization: CILIAR ACTIVITY (Trachea, ovarium) simple, pseudostratified, ciliated cilia

pseudostratified ciliated epithelia with Goblet cells (mucin-producing cells, trachea) Typical respiratory epithelium

pseudostratified ciliated epithelia with Goblet cells (mucin-producing cells, trachea) Typical respiratory epithelium

Stratified epithelial tissues Cells are arranged in two or more cell layers Shape of

Stratified epithelial tissues Cells are arranged in two or more cell layers Shape of cell varies from layer to layer Classification: - Stratified sqamous epithelium, nonkeratinized - Stratified sqamous epithelium, keratinized - Stratified cuboidal epithelium - Stratified columnar epithelium Stratified epithelia are classified according to the shape of cells lying on the surface of a given stratified epithelium

Stratified sqamous epithelium, keratinized bőr A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial

Stratified sqamous epithelium, keratinized bőr A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity. The surface squamous cells are irregularly shaped and very flat; so flat the cell nucleus sometimes creates a bump in the surface of the cell. Gases and other substances can easily diffuse across squamous cells to the underlying basement membrane, and because of their smooth surface, liquids can quickly flow over them.

Stratified sqamous epithelium, keratinized Str. corneum Str. lucidum Str. granulosum Str. spinosum Str. Basale

Stratified sqamous epithelium, keratinized Str. corneum Str. lucidum Str. granulosum Str. spinosum Str. Basale (basement membrane!)

Stratified sqamous epithelium, nonkeratinized Protects against mechanical forces No corneal layer, sutface is moistend

Stratified sqamous epithelium, nonkeratinized Protects against mechanical forces No corneal layer, sutface is moistend by glands Covers internal surfaces Oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, , rectum • Stratum basale (germinativum) Stratum planocellulare • Stratum polygonale (spinosum) • Stratum planocellulare Stratum polygonale Stratum basale esophagus

Stratified cuboidal epithelium Stratified columnar epithelium Excretory duct of sweat gland (stratified cuboidal) Basal

Stratified cuboidal epithelium Stratified columnar epithelium Excretory duct of sweat gland (stratified cuboidal) Basal cells are typically cuboidal with surface cells either columnar or cuboidal in appearance. These types can be found in the larger ducts of various glands, including the pancreas, salivary, and sweat glands. Kidney tubule (stratified columnar)

Transitional epithelium or Urothelium Stratified cuboidal Ureter, urinary bladder Germinal layer, pearl shaped cell

Transitional epithelium or Urothelium Stratified cuboidal Ureter, urinary bladder Germinal layer, pearl shaped cell layers and umbrella cell layer Protects against the osmosis Umbrella cells Pesrl shaped cells Basal cells

Transitional epithelium (urothelium) Since the cells can slide over each other, the appearance of

Transitional epithelium (urothelium) Since the cells can slide over each other, the appearance of this epithelium depends on whether the organ is distended or contracted: if distended, it appears as if there are only a few layers; when contracted, it appears as if there are several layers. Collapsed Distended

Glandular epithelia

Glandular epithelia

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 1. CLASSIFICATION 1) Number of secretory cells a) Unicellular glands

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 1. CLASSIFICATION 1) Number of secretory cells a) Unicellular glands – Mucus-secreting goblet cells are the only example of these single-celled glands in humans. These goblet cells secrete mucus and are easily visualized in slides of the small intestine. (trachea) b) Multicellular glands -

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 2. 2) Nature of secretion a) Serous – A cell-type

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 2. 2) Nature of secretion a) Serous – A cell-type that produces a thin watery, protein-rich secretion (e. g. the pancreas and parotid salivary glands are entirely serous in nature). These cells exhibit intense basophilia, which results from large accumulations of rough endoplasmic reticulum (r. ER) and free ribosomes. (protein synthesis) b) Mucous – A cell type that is characterized by numerous large, lightly staining granules containing strongly hydrophilic glycoproteins called mucins, viscous secretions that have a lubricating or protective function. The cytoplasm dominantly consists of mucinogen granules that do not stain with H&E sections due to the high carbohydrate content of the glycoprotein of the mucin c) Mixed – These glands have both serous and mucous cells. d) The secretory cells form acini.

Serous secretion (e. g. pancreas), Serosus acini Serosus acinus parotis

Serous secretion (e. g. pancreas), Serosus acini Serosus acinus parotis

Mucous secretion (e. g. sublingual salivary gland) Glandula submandibularis Mucous acini

Mucous secretion (e. g. sublingual salivary gland) Glandula submandibularis Mucous acini

Mixed These glands have both serous and mucous cells, acini. Gianuzzi-demilune Mucous acinus Gianuzzi-demilune

Mixed These glands have both serous and mucous cells, acini. Gianuzzi-demilune Mucous acinus Gianuzzi-demilune Serous secreting cells Gianuzzi-demilune

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 3. 3) Mechanism of secretion (the way in which the

Classification of Glandular Epithelia 3. 3) Mechanism of secretion (the way in which the secretory products leave the cell) – a) Merocrine secretion (e. g. sweat gland) - This is the most common type of glandular epithelium secretion where secretory granules within the cytoplasm of the cell gather at the apical region of the cell. Then, the granule’s limiting membrane fuses with the apical membrane and the contents of the granule are opened and released. This process of fusion and release are collectively referred to as exocytosis. The secretory granules leave the cell with no loss of other cellular material. Mucous and serous cells exhibit this type of secretion.

b) Apocrine secretion – A rare type of secretion dependent on sex hormones where

b) Apocrine secretion – A rare type of secretion dependent on sex hormones where secretory granules within the cytoplasm gather at the apical region of the cell. Then, a portion of the cytoplasm of the cell simply pinches off enclosing the granules. Within the lumen, this small secretory vesicle breaks down and releases the gland’s products. Examples of apocrine glands include lactating mammary glands, apocrine sweat glands of skin in the pubic and axilla regions Apokrin szekréció

c) Holocrine secretion – This secretion consists of disintegrated cells of the gland itself.

c) Holocrine secretion – This secretion consists of disintegrated cells of the gland itself. Granules fill the cell until the entire cell becomes “bloated” with secretory products. Instead of being released (merocrine) or pinched off (apocrine), the whole cell is discharged into the lumen. Once inside the lumen, the cell degenerates and the secretory products are released. This type of secretion occurs primarily in sebaceous glands within the skin. Faggyúmirigy 1. Szőrszál 2. Faggyúmirigy 3. Bulbus 4. Kötőszöveti papilla 5. Verejtékmirigy Sebaceous gland

Sensory epithelium - In sensory organs - work as stimulus receptors. They transform arriving

Sensory epithelium - In sensory organs - work as stimulus receptors. They transform arriving stimuli (light, chemical substances, mechanical pressure, pain) into electrical signals Olfactory and then transmit them via nerve fibers. - sensory cells and phalangeal cells - slfactory epithelium, vestibular organ, taste buds. . Hair cells Taste bud

Pigment epithelium - In the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells are melanin containig granules

Pigment epithelium - In the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells are melanin containig granules - Layer in the retina, protects the rods and cones

Connective and supporting tissues containing both cellular and intercellular substances (extracellular matrix), which may

Connective and supporting tissues containing both cellular and intercellular substances (extracellular matrix), which may be liquid, semisolid, or solid. . cells fix fibrocyte reticulum cell adipocyte melanocyte mesoblast extracellular matrix mobil fibres macrophage groud substance proteoglycan mast cell collagen plasmacell elastic Hyaluronic acid fibronektin granulocyte reticular chondroitinsulphat laminin fibrillin glycosaminoglycan adhesion glycoproteins heparan-sulphate keratan-sulphate dermatan-sulphate tenascin enactin trombospondin

Cells of the connective tissue I. fix cells - fibroblast - fibrocyte - adipocyte

Cells of the connective tissue I. fix cells - fibroblast - fibrocyte - adipocyte - reticulum cell II. Mobile cells - macrophage - mast cell - lymphocyte - plasma cell - granulocyte

FIX CELLs I. FIBROBLAST: - aktív cell - produces extracellular matrix and fibers -

FIX CELLs I. FIBROBLAST: - aktív cell - produces extracellular matrix and fibers - ovoid, euchromatic nucleus - star shaped cell body with processes, basphil staining due to the r. ER

FIX CELLs II. FIBROCYTE: - inactive form of the fibroblast - fusiform shape -

FIX CELLs II. FIBROCYTE: - inactive form of the fibroblast - fusiform shape - dark stained nucleus - cytoplasm is small fibroblast fibrocyta

ADIPOCYTE (white fat cell) - round, thin cytoplasm - one big fat drop (unilocular)

ADIPOCYTE (white fat cell) - round, thin cytoplasm - one big fat drop (unilocular) - nucleus dark, thin on the side of the cell - form groups - storage of the fat - mechanical protection adipocyta

BROWN FAT CELL - lipochrom (lipid-like pigment) - many smaller droplet (multilocular) - nucleus

BROWN FAT CELL - lipochrom (lipid-like pigment) - many smaller droplet (multilocular) - nucleus is in the center - cytoplasm contain mitochondria HEAT PRODUCTION, THERMOREGULATION: - many capillaries in the tissue - sympathetic regulation Barna zsírszövet

MOBILE CELLs MACROPHAGE: - monocytes from the blood changes to macrophages - phagocytosis -

MOBILE CELLs MACROPHAGE: - monocytes from the blood changes to macrophages - phagocytosis - inflammation - excentric, kidney-shape nucleus - phagosoma

MAST CELL - polymorph cell - basophil cytoplasm - near the vessels - contains

MAST CELL - polymorph cell - basophil cytoplasm - near the vessels - contains heparin, histamin and serotonin granules Mast cell

LYMPHOCYTE - small , round cell - thin, cytoplasmic band around the round nucleus

LYMPHOCYTE - small , round cell - thin, cytoplasmic band around the round nucleus - cell of the immune system lypmphocyta lymphocyta

PLASMA CELL - excentric nucleus, cartwheel like chromatin, - from the B-cells - produces

PLASMA CELL - excentric nucleus, cartwheel like chromatin, - from the B-cells - produces immuno-globulins plazmasejt

NEUTROPHYL GRANULOCYTE - rond, lobulated nucleus - cellular protection against the bacteria Neutrophyl granulocyta

NEUTROPHYL GRANULOCYTE - rond, lobulated nucleus - cellular protection against the bacteria Neutrophyl granulocyta

CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS are formed by proteins that polymerize into elongated structures • collagen

CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS are formed by proteins that polymerize into elongated structures • collagen fibers: elastic, flexible, remarkably high tensile strength (collagen molecules) • elastic fibers: elastic, less tensile strength (mainly elastin molecules) • reticular (collagen molecules) • fibrillin

COLLAGEN Fi. BERS - high tensile strength - Tropocollagen molecules formed by fibroblasts (mainly)

COLLAGEN Fi. BERS - high tensile strength - Tropocollagen molecules formed by fibroblasts (mainly) - Tropocollagen molecules build up fibrills - Fibrills build up thin and thick fibers Collagen fibers

TYPE –I COLLAGEN: - 90% - Skin, tendon, ligaments, bone TYPE –II COLLAGEN: -

TYPE –I COLLAGEN: - 90% - Skin, tendon, ligaments, bone TYPE –II COLLAGEN: - Porcszövet, csigolyaközti porckorong nuvleus pulposusa, TYPE –III COLLAGEN - Reticular fibers, - Wall of vessels, kidney, spleen TYPE –IV COLLAGEN - Lamina basalis TYPE –V COLLAGEN - skin, reticular fibers

RETICULAR FIBERS - very thin network of fibers - produced by reticulum cells -

RETICULAR FIBERS - very thin network of fibers - produced by reticulum cells - mainly in immun organs : spleen and lymph nodes - build up from III type of collagen fibers Retikuláris rostok, ezüst impregnáció

ELASTIC FIBERS - Tensile - but tensile strenght is law - thin fibers wind

ELASTIC FIBERS - Tensile - but tensile strenght is law - thin fibers wind up - in the wall of big vessels and the lung - special stainig –orcein - it consist of elastin molecules and fibrillin produced by smooth muscle cells Elastikus rostok, aorta, orcein

Fibrillin • extremely thin (d: 8 -10 nm) filaments • only by EM •

Fibrillin • extremely thin (d: 8 -10 nm) filaments • only by EM • fibrillin: is a glycoprotein • Marfan syndrome: autosomal dominant genetic disorder; defect in fibrillin formation symptomes: skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular: extremely long and thin limbs, hollow chest, and elongated fingers. prolapse of the mitral valve, dilated aorta,

Types of connective tissue • Mesenchymal (mucoid) tissue • Loose connective tissue – reticular

Types of connective tissue • Mesenchymal (mucoid) tissue • Loose connective tissue – reticular – cellular – adipose • brown adipose tissue • White adipose tissue • Dense connective tissue – regular – irregular

MESENCHYMAL TISSUE Embrionic type tissue

MESENCHYMAL TISSUE Embrionic type tissue

LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE • few fibers, irregular structure • the most frequent type, •

LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE • few fibers, irregular structure • the most frequent type, • fills in spaces, connects organs with each other loose conn. tissue

RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE - reticulum cells : star-shaped cells with processes - Produce reticular

RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE - reticulum cells : star-shaped cells with processes - Produce reticular fibers - fibers and cells form a fine netwoerk - Lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow: immun organs Retikuláris rostok

CELLULAR CONN. TISSUE - cell rich tissue - Lower amount of fibers - in

CELLULAR CONN. TISSUE - cell rich tissue - Lower amount of fibers - in the uterus endometrium

dense regular connective tissue many collagen fibers in regularly arranged bundles, between them fibrocytes

dense regular connective tissue many collagen fibers in regularly arranged bundles, between them fibrocytes dense irregular connective tissue many collagen fibers, in irregularly arranged bundles

 ADIPOSE TISSUE • adipocytes, a few reticular fibers • „Fat pad” • white

ADIPOSE TISSUE • adipocytes, a few reticular fibers • „Fat pad” • white and brown adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue - many capillaries in the tissue - sympathetic regulation

Brown adipose tissue - many capillaries in the tissue - sympathetic regulation

Muscular tissue

Muscular tissue

Cartilage General functions: • Model for bone growth • Absorbs shock in joints •

Cartilage General functions: • Model for bone growth • Absorbs shock in joints • Provides tissue flexibility • Strengthens attachments Types: Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage

Types of cartilage: • hyaline cartilage articular cartilage, larynx, trachea, bronchi, nose, rib cartilage,

Types of cartilage: • hyaline cartilage articular cartilage, larynx, trachea, bronchi, nose, rib cartilage, epiphyseal plate, bone primordium • elastic cartilage ear, epiglottis, auditory tube • fibrocartilage intervertebral disc, articular cartilage, menisc, disc

Hyaline cartilage • avascular and nerve-free tissue • the cells are anaerob, nutrition only

Hyaline cartilage • avascular and nerve-free tissue • the cells are anaerob, nutrition only by diffusion • no regeneratio • perichondrium envelops usually - fibrous layer and chondrogenic layer • homogeneously stained matrix

Hyaline cartilage consists of: Chondron : 2 -4 chondrocyte in a group (isogenous group)

Hyaline cartilage consists of: Chondron : 2 -4 chondrocyte in a group (isogenous group) around it darker inner and lighter stained outer ECM extracellular matrix (ECM) collagens , proteoglycans (aggrecan, decorin, biglycan) hyaluronic acid, glycoproteins chondron Hyalin carilage, chondrocyta

Hyaline Cartilage Fibrous perichondrium Chondrogenic perichondrium New cartilage Cell nest (isogenous group) Territorial matrix

Hyaline Cartilage Fibrous perichondrium Chondrogenic perichondrium New cartilage Cell nest (isogenous group) Territorial matrix Interterritorial matrix

ELASTIC CARTILAGE - Similar to the hyalin cart. but contains a lot of elastic

ELASTIC CARTILAGE - Similar to the hyalin cart. but contains a lot of elastic fibers - smaller chondrons - In the larynx, ear, nose Elasztikus rostok Chondrocyta chondrocyta

FIBROCARTILAGE - thick collagen bundles, some chondrocyte - Small chondrons, 1 -1 chondrocyte -

FIBROCARTILAGE - thick collagen bundles, some chondrocyte - Small chondrons, 1 -1 chondrocyte - No perichondrium - Strongly atteched to the surrounding tissues - discus, meniscus, - Intervertebral disc - symphysis

Bone tissue Organic and anorganic materials and cells - osteoblast - osteocyte - osteoclast

Bone tissue Organic and anorganic materials and cells - osteoblast - osteocyte - osteoclast

OSTEOBLAST - activ, formation of bone matrix - Formation of organic elements of intercellular

OSTEOBLAST - activ, formation of bone matrix - Formation of organic elements of intercellular matrix (osteoid) - Cubodal cells on the surface on the bone spicules - Inactiv form : osteocyte osteoblast

OSTEOCYTA - Elongated with long processes - Long processes are in contact with the

OSTEOCYTA - Elongated with long processes - Long processes are in contact with the other osteocytes - Nourishing the cells osteocyta

OSTEOCLAST - Multinucleated giant cells - On the surface of the bone matrix in

OSTEOCLAST - Multinucleated giant cells - On the surface of the bone matrix in lacunae - Demolition of the bone matris osteoclast

EXTRACELLULÁRIS MÁTRIX organic - type-I collagen produced by the osteoblasts anorganic hidroxi-apatit crysals connected

EXTRACELLULÁRIS MÁTRIX organic - type-I collagen produced by the osteoblasts anorganic hidroxi-apatit crysals connected to the fibers

- osteons, Consists of lamellae (laminae spciales) - 3 -20 circularly arranged laminae speciales

- osteons, Consists of lamellae (laminae spciales) - 3 -20 circularly arranged laminae speciales , in the center Havers – canal wth arteries - Between the lamellae small cavities (lacunae) where the cells are sitting 1 1. 2. 3. 3 ostecyta Havers-csatorna Lacuna ossei Laminae speciales 3 3 1 2

Muscular tissue - Striated muscle - Smooth muscle Subgroups of the striated muscle. -

Muscular tissue - Striated muscle - Smooth muscle Subgroups of the striated muscle. - Striated sceletal muscle - Striated visceral muscle (in the internal organs) - Heart muscle

Sceletal muscle (MUSCULUS) - multinucleated muscle fibers (30 -40 cm) - diameter 10 -100µm

Sceletal muscle (MUSCULUS) - multinucleated muscle fibers (30 -40 cm) - diameter 10 -100µm - cell membrane (sarcolemma), hundreds of nuclei - contractile elements (myofibrills) - voluntary movement, quickly get tired

Myofibrills - thin, actin and thick, miozin filaments - paralell arrangement of the fibrills

Myofibrills - thin, actin and thick, miozin filaments - paralell arrangement of the fibrills causes the striation - light stained band (I-band) - actin (thin) filaments - dark stained band (A-band) - miozin (thick) filaments

Sarcomer The alternate darker (A) and lighter (I) bands of aktin and myosine arrangement

Sarcomer The alternate darker (A) and lighter (I) bands of aktin and myosine arrangement result the striation. The functional unit of skeletal muscle between to Z lines is sarcomer muscle I-band Muscle fiber myoifibrill Z-line A-band sarcomer Z-line

Skeletal (striated) muscle relaxation contraction Ca ions!

Skeletal (striated) muscle relaxation contraction Ca ions!

Striated visceral muscle - Histology is the same as the sceletal muscle - Do

Striated visceral muscle - Histology is the same as the sceletal muscle - Do not move the sceleton - In the tongue, esophagus, pharynx nyelvizom

Heart muscle - involuntary, - contain only one nucleus (although they may have as

Heart muscle - involuntary, - contain only one nucleus (although they may have as many as four) - sarcomeres gives cardiac muscle cells a striated appearance nucleus Cardiac cell or cardiomyocyte: - functional unit - branched, „Y” -shaped - centrally arranged nucleus - well seen nucleolus - cardiac muscle cells are joined together at their ends by intercaleted disks Szívizom sejt

Intercalated disc or Eberth line - Intercalated discs support synchronized contraction of cardiac tissue.

Intercalated disc or Eberth line - Intercalated discs support synchronized contraction of cardiac tissue. They occur at the Z line of the sarcomer - zonula adherens - desmosome - gap junction Dicus intercalaris Discus intecalaris

Smooth muscle is an involuntary, non-striated muscle. Functional unit is the myocyte Within single-unit

Smooth muscle is an involuntary, non-striated muscle. Functional unit is the myocyte Within single-unit cells, the whole bundle or sheet contracts as a syncytium Fusiform cell with rod-like nucleus Myozin and actin are in irregular arrangment Smooth muscle in the wall of vessel nucleus

Smooth muscle The cytoplasm is typically eosinophilic stained. Within the fasciculi the smooth muscle

Smooth muscle The cytoplasm is typically eosinophilic stained. Within the fasciculi the smooth muscle cells are arranged parallel to one another, it is difficult to recognize the cell borders. Smooth muscle-containing tissue often must be stretched, so elasticity is an important attribute. The contractile function of vascular smooth muscle is critical to regulating the lumenal diameter of the small arteriesarterioles called resistance vessels. The resistance arteries contribute significantly to setting the level of blood pressure.

Nervous Tissue

Nervous Tissue

neurons Red arrows glial cells black arrows

neurons Red arrows glial cells black arrows

The general structure of (moto)neuron • Structural and functional unit of nervous tissue •

The general structure of (moto)neuron • Structural and functional unit of nervous tissue • Specialised cells of impulse 1. input 2. integration 3. conduction 4. output perikaryon or soma dendrites axon telodendrion-synapses

PERIKARYON Cytoplasm: Golgi apparat Mitochondria Mikrotubuls (aktinszerű anyag – anyagtranszport) Neurofilaments r. ER =

PERIKARYON Cytoplasm: Golgi apparat Mitochondria Mikrotubuls (aktinszerű anyag – anyagtranszport) Neurofilaments r. ER = Nissl bodies Nucleus, nucleolus

DENDRITE are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrical stimulation

DENDRITE are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body (or soma) contain small projections referred to as dendritic spines that increase receptive properties of dendrites contain Nissl bodies Initial segment dendrit axon motoneuron Dendritic spines Szigeti Csaba Sejtbiológiai és Molekuláris Medicina Tanszék Szegedi Tudományegyetem http: //www. sci. u-szeged. hu/zoolcell/szigetics. hu. html

NEURIT (AXON) Long cytoplasmic process with axon terminal • • • Axon terminals are

NEURIT (AXON) Long cytoplasmic process with axon terminal • • • Axon terminals are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon An axon, also called a nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses called action potentials away from the neuron's cell body, or soma in order to transmit those impulses to other neurons, muscle cells or glands. dendrit Axon hillock Initial segment Collateral axon telodendron transmitters!!