- Slides: 14
Semantics and Lexicology Generativist semantics
From structuralist semantics Semantic features, components
From generative, formal syntax Putting meanings together Using formal, structure-internal, rules Mentalism, user judgements
To what extent is meaning relevant in syntax? Autonomuos syntax Morris, Carnap: syntax, semantics and pragmatics Formal syntax in mathematics and logic Chomsky, Syntactic structures, 1957 Introduction of semantics to generative grammar Katz & Fodor Split: Interpretive semantics and generative semantics
Katz et al. Markers and distinguishers Projections rules Selection restrictions
Formal rules vs judgements in context Can formal rules make the right choice among senses of lexical items?
Lexical components and syntactic combination Markers should express meaning that is syntactically relevant
Linguistic meaning and world knowledge Analytic and synthetic sentences
What is lexical and what is grammatical? The enemy destroyed the city → the destruction of the city by the enemy ? (cause x (become (not (alive y)))) → x kill y ?
How much is lexical? Lexicalism in Generative grammar Lexical rules in Lexical functional grammar Construction grammar
Meaning: internal and external Structuralism: paradigmatic relations Generativism: internal relations, formal, mental, syntactic; rationalism Reintroduction of the external world: Formal logic with truth conditions World knowledge, frames Experiential basis in cognition
How much world knowledge should be included? Formal semantics ”Neostructuralist semantics” Computational linguistics Cognitive linguistics
Contributions Combination of meaning Mental, cognitive perspective
Problems Semantic combination rather than syntactic combination of meaning is needed Relations to the empirical world World knowledge Contextual application