Semantic Web Applications Graham Klyne Nine by Nine

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Semantic Web Applications Graham Klyne Nine by Nine http: //www. ninebynine. net/ 26 February

Semantic Web Applications Graham Klyne Nine by Nine http: //www. ninebynine. net/ 26 February 2004 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications

Nine by Nine Who am I? • Scientific, engineering and networked software systems architecture

Nine by Nine Who am I? • Scientific, engineering and networked software systems architecture – Motion capture, mechanism design, IP address translation, MIMEsweeper • Internet and Web standards – Internet fax, email, instant messaging, content negotiation • Most recently, Semantic Web (RDF) – I believe this technology is set to have a big impact on computer application development 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 2

Data – Knowledge – Meaning? Deep philosophical territory: not going here In the limited

Data – Knowledge – Meaning? Deep philosophical territory: not going here In the limited sense of KR Knowledge semantics RDF Applications structure character raw XML Unicode Bits, Octets Data Physical 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 3

Open Building Blocks Standing on the shoulders of giants • Much recent progress in

Open Building Blocks Standing on the shoulders of giants • Much recent progress in Internet software is built upon open standards and open building blocks • Open infrastructure is not hostage to proprietary systems vendors • There's a freedom about the Internet: As long as we accept the rules of sending packets around, we can send packets containing anything to anywhere. - Tim Berners-Lee • Semantic Web technology follows this pattern 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications . . . SOAP XML HTTP MIME SMTP TCP/IP . PHP My. SQL Apache Perl libwww Linux Sendmail BSD 4

Evolving Use of Information • Consider computer applications that should be sharing common information

Evolving Use of Information • Consider computer applications that should be sharing common information • Typically, data is not readily shared • Data must be re-entered or converted, which is expensive and error-prone 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 5

Example • Employee information distributed across disparate IT systems HR Employees Payees Finance Users

Example • Employee information distributed across disparate IT systems HR Employees Payees Finance Users Security 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 6

Semantic Web Technologies Proposed benefits • Re-use information designs • Use open building blocks

Semantic Web Technologies Proposed benefits • Re-use information designs • Use open building blocks to process common information • Integrate data sources: new uses for existing data Collect, Process, Extract 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 7

The Semantic Web Evolving the Web • Evolution of the Web to a network

The Semantic Web Evolving the Web • Evolution of the Web to a network of application-usable information – open standards from W 3 C – open software from many sources • An open-ended framework for combining and exploiting information from a wide range of sources 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 8

Semantic Web Building Blocks • Resource Description Framework (RDF) – An XML-based standard knowledge

Semantic Web Building Blocks • Resource Description Framework (RDF) – An XML-based standard knowledge representation format for exchanging arbitrary information • Web Ontology Language (OWL) – A standard for describing classes of objects and enabling inference • RDF Query, RDF Rules, Access, and more – Pre-standardization, software components 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 9

(Detour: example data) • Example from network configuration, describes features of a user and

(Detour: example data) • Example from network configuration, describes features of a user and a computer system – RDF/XML (link) – Notation 3 (link) – Graph (link: PNG) 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 10

What kinds of application? • Diverse, semi-structured information • Open-ended: evolving functions and data

What kinds of application? • Diverse, semi-structured information • Open-ended: evolving functions and data • Examples: – – – Personal information management (Chandler) Social networking (FOAF) Information syndication (RSS, PRISM) Library/museum data (Dublin Core, Harmony) Network security and configuration (SWAD-E) 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 11

What can be Achieved? • Integration of diverse data sources • Focus on information

What can be Achieved? • Integration of diverse data sources • Focus on information needs • Generate new knowledge Generic software functions RDF Input data 26 Feb 2004 Aggregation, Inference, Query Semantic Web Applications Results RDF 12

Aggregation + Inference = New Knowledge • Building on the success of XML –

Aggregation + Inference = New Knowledge • Building on the success of XML – Common syntactic framework for data representation, supporting use of common tools – But, lacking semantics, provides no basis for automatic aggregation of diverse sources • RDF: a semantic framework – Automatic aggregation (graph merging) – Inference from aggregated data sources generates new knowledge • Domain knowledge from ontologies and inference rules 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 13

Aggregation + Inference: Example • Consider three datasets, describing: – vehicles’ passenger capacities –

Aggregation + Inference: Example • Consider three datasets, describing: – vehicles’ passenger capacities – the capacity of some roads – the effect of policy options on vehicle usage • Aggregation and inference may yield: – passenger transportation capacity of a given road in response to various policy options – using existing open software building blocks • [Example (link: TBD)] 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 14

What needs to be done? • Information design • Data-use strategies and inference rules

What needs to be done? • Information design • Data-use strategies and inference rules • Mechanisms for acquisition of existing data sources • Mechanisms for presentation or utilization of the resulting information 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 15

Benefits • Greater use of off-the-shelf software – reduced development cost and risk •

Benefits • Greater use of off-the-shelf software – reduced development cost and risk • Re-use of information designs – reduced application design costs; better information sharing between applications • Flexibility – systems can adapt as requirements evolve • Open access to information making possible new applications 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 16

Recommendation: Low risk approach • Focus on information requirements – this is unlikely to

Recommendation: Low risk approach • Focus on information requirements – this is unlikely to be wasted effort • Start with a limited goal, progress by steps – adapting to evolving requirements is an advantage of SW technology; if it can do this for large projects it certainly must be able to do so for early experimental projects • Use existing open building blocks 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 17

Proposed evaluation steps • Decide if this can help your application – – Identify

Proposed evaluation steps • Decide if this can help your application – – Identify a well-defined, constrained sub-goal Design an initial information model Prototype data and inference rules Explore some variations • Develop simple mechanisms to present existing data as RDF • Start with a simple sub-problem, scoped to just a few days work 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 18

Where are we now? • Semantic Web is new technology – about 10 years

Where are we now? • Semantic Web is new technology – about 10 years after the original WWW • Many applications are experimental • The goals may be inevitable. . . – Applications working together with users’ information, not owning it – drawing background knowledge from the Web – less dependence on hand-coded bespoke software • … but the particular technology is not 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 19

Conclusion: Semantic Web Technology Today • • World Wide Web incremental advance Evolvable approach

Conclusion: Semantic Web Technology Today • • World Wide Web incremental advance Evolvable approach to information Leverages open software building blocks Builds on diversity – creating new knowledge – enabling new applications • Low-risk adoption strategy – by incremental, re-usable steps 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 20

End • Contact information: – info@ninebynine. net – http: //www. ninebynine. net/ • References:

End • Contact information: – [email protected] net – http: //www. ninebynine. net/ • References: – http: //www. ninebynine. net/Papers/ Semantic. Web. Applications. ppt ~. pdf – http: //www. w 3. org/2001/sw/ – http: //www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm? article. ID=00048144 -10 D 2 -1 C 70 -84 A 9809 EC 588 EF 21&cat. ID=2 – http: //www. w 3. org/rdf 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 21

Nine by Nine What can we offer? • We have participated actively in development

Nine by Nine What can we offer? • We have participated actively in development of RDF core standard • Developed open source software for inference and proof-checking in RDF data • Design RDF applications – including CC/PP, a W 3 C recommendation • Offer help with Semantic Web information design and technology evaluation 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 22

Data - Information Knowledge 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 23

Data - Information Knowledge 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 23

End ? 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 24

End ? 26 Feb 2004 Semantic Web Applications 24