Sedimentary Rock Section 3 3 Sedimentary Rocks All

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Sedimentary Rock Section 3. 3

Sedimentary Rock Section 3. 3

Sedimentary Rocks All sedimentary rocks begin to form when existing rocks are broken down

Sedimentary Rocks All sedimentary rocks begin to form when existing rocks are broken down into sediments through a process called weathering Weathering is the process in which rocks are physically and chemically broken down by water, air, ice and gravity Sediments are transported, by water, gravity, glaciers or wind, and eventually become compacted and cemented together, forming sedimentary rocks

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary comes from the Latin word sedimentum, which means settling

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary comes from the Latin word sedimentum, which means settling There are several major processes that contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks: Weathering, Erosion and Deposition Compaction and Cementation

Weathering, Erosion and Deposition Weathering is any process that breaks rocks into sediments Chemical

Weathering, Erosion and Deposition Weathering is any process that breaks rocks into sediments Chemical weathering takes place when the minerals in rocks change into new substances Erosion involves weathering and the transportation of sediments Deposition is the process when water, wind, ice or gravity loses energy causing sediments to drop Larger sediments are deposited first, smaller sediments are dropped later

Compaction and Cementation Once sediments are deposited, they become lithified or turned into rock

Compaction and Cementation Once sediments are deposited, they become lithified or turned into rock Compaction is a process that squeezes, or compacts, sediments, pushing water out Compaction is caused by the weight of sediments Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks can be classified into two main groups according to the

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks can be classified into two main groups according to the way they form Clastic – rocks that are made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals Chemical – forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of weathered bits of rocks and

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals Clastic sedimentary rocks can be grouped according to the size of the sediments in the rocks Conglomerate rocks are made up of rounded, gravel-size or larger particles Breccia rocks have angular particles Sandstone rocks have sediments that are sandsized grains

Breccia Conglomerate Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone

Breccia Conglomerate Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions The precipitation generally occurs when water evaporates or boils off leaving a solid product Examples include limestone, rock salt, chert, flint and rock gypsum Biochemical sedimentary rocks contain shells and skeletal remains of organisms that settle to the ocean floor

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Chert Rock Salt Flint Limestone

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Chert Rock Salt Flint Limestone

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

Features of some Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks give clues to how, when and where

Features of some Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks give clues to how, when and where the rocks formed Layers of sedimentary rock records a period of sediment deposition. The oldest layers are found at the bottom Ripple marks may indicate that the rock was formed along a beach or stream bed Mud cracks are formed when wet mud or clay dried and shrank, leaving a record of a dry environment Fossils found in sedimentary rocks can help answer questions about the rock

Mud cracks Fossils Layers of sedimentary rock Ripple marks

Mud cracks Fossils Layers of sedimentary rock Ripple marks

Summary of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks form as the result of five major process

Summary of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks form as the result of five major process Weathering produces particles called sediments Wind, water, ice and gravity erode and deposit sediments Sediments are compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks can be classified according to how they form, by using rock formation, texture and composition

(Table 2 on page 79)

(Table 2 on page 79)