Section Outline Section 1 2 1 2 How

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Section Outline Section 1 -2 1– 2 How Scientists Work A. Designing an Experiment

Section Outline Section 1 -2 1– 2 How Scientists Work A. Designing an Experiment 1. Asking a Question 2. Forming a Hypothesis 3. Setting Up a Controlled Experiment 4. Recording and Analyzing Results 5. Drawing a Conclusion B. Publishing and Repeating Investigations 1. Needham’s Test of Redi’s Findings 2. Spallanzani’s Test of Redi’s Findings 3. Pasteur’s Test of Spontaneous Generation 4. The Impact of Pasteur’s Work C. When Experiments Are Not Possible D. How a Theory Develops Go to Section:

Flowchart Section 1 -2 Designing an Experiment State the Problem Analyze Results Form a

Flowchart Section 1 -2 Designing an Experiment State the Problem Analyze Results Form a Hypothesis Draw a Conclusion Set Up a Controlled Experiment Publish Results Record Results Go to Section:

Figure 1 -8 Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation Section 1 -2 OBSERVATIONS: Flies land

Figure 1 -8 Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation Section 1 -2 OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Uncovered jars Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Covered jars Several days pass Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Responding Variable: whether maggots Maggots appear No maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Go to Section:

Figure 1 -10 Spallanzani’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Go to Section: Gravy is boiled.

Figure 1 -10 Spallanzani’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Go to Section: Gravy is boiled. Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is boiled. Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms.

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section:

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section: Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section:

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section: Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section:

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section: Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section:

Figure 1 -11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1 -2 Broth is boiled. Go to Section: Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

8 Characteristics of Living Things Section 1 -3 Characteristic Examples Living things are made

8 Characteristics of Living Things Section 1 -3 Characteristic Examples Living things are made up of units called cells. Living things reproduce. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Many microorganisms consist of only a single cell. Animals and trees are multicellular. Maple trees reproduce sexually. A hydra can reproduce asexually by budding. Flies produce flies. Dogs produce dogs. Seeds from maple trees produce maple trees. Flies begin life as eggs, then become maggots, and then become adult flies. Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat. Living things respond to their environment. Leaves and stems of plants grow toward light. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. (HOMEOSTATSIS) Despite changes in the temperature of the environment, a robin maintains a constant body temperature. Taken as a group, living things change over time. - EVOLVE Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert. Living things are based on a universal genetic code. Living things grow and develop. Go to Section:

Branches of Biology Zoology – Animals Botany – Plants Entomology – insects Ichthyology –

Branches of Biology Zoology – Animals Botany – Plants Entomology – insects Ichthyology – fish Microbiology – small organisms Anatomy – Structure Mycology – Fungi Cytology – cells Virology – viruses Ecology – Ecosystems Genetics - heredity Go to Section: