Section 2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks

  • Slides: 15
Download presentation
Section 2: Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are classified by their mode of

Section 2: Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are classified by their mode of formation. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned

Essential Questions • How can the different types of clastic sedimentary rocks be described?

Essential Questions • How can the different types of clastic sedimentary rocks be described? • How do chemical sedimentary rocks form? • What are biochemical sedimentary rocks? Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Vocabulary Review New • • • saturated Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education clastic sedimentary

Vocabulary Review New • • • saturated Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education clastic sedimentary rock clastic porosity evaporite Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • The most common sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, are formed

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • The most common sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, are formed from the abundant deposits of loose sediments that accumulate on Earth’s surface. • Clastic refers to rock and mineral fragments produced by weathering and erosion. These rocks are further classified according to the sizes of their particles. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Coarse-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks consisting of gravel-sized rock and mineral

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Coarse-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks consisting of gravel-sized rock and mineral fragments are classified as coarse-grained rocks. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Coarse-grained rocks • • Conglomerates have rounded, gravel-sized particles. Breccias are

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Coarse-grained rocks • • Conglomerates have rounded, gravel-sized particles. Breccias are composed of angular, gravel-sized particles. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Concepts In Motion FPO Add link to Animation from p.

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Concepts In Motion FPO Add link to Animation from p. 142 here. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Medium-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks that contain sand-sized rock and mineral

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Medium-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks that contain sand-sized rock and mineral fragments are classified as medium-grained clastic rocks. • Porosity is the percentage of open spaces between grains in a material, such as rock. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Medium-grained rocks • When open spaces between grains in a rock

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Medium-grained rocks • When open spaces between grains in a rock are connected to one another, fluids can move through porous rock such as sandstone. Sandstone layers can be valuable as underground reservoirs of oil, natural gas, and groundwater. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Fine-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks consisting of silt- and clay-sized particles

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Fine-grained rocks • Sedimentary rocks consisting of silt- and clay-sized particles are called finegrained rocks. • Fine-grained sedimentary rock has low porosity and often forms barriers that hinder the movement of groundwater and oil. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks • When the concentration of dissolved

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks • When the concentration of dissolved minerals in a body of water reaches saturation, crystals can precipitate out of solution and settle to the bottom. The resulting layers of chemical sedimentary rocks are called evaporites. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks • The constant evaporation from a

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks • The constant evaporation from a body of salt water results in precipitation of large amounts of salts. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical sedimentary rocks • Biochemical sedimentary rocks are formed

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical sedimentary rocks • Biochemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of once-living organisms. • The most abundant of this type of rock is limestone, which is composed primarily of calcite. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical sedimentary rocks • After the death of organisms

Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical sedimentary rocks • After the death of organisms that used calcium carbonate to make their shells, the shells settle to the bottom of the ocean and can form thick layers of carbonate sediment. • During burial and lithification of the carbonate sediment formed from the shells of once-living organisms, calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, crystallizes between the grains of carbonate sediment, and forms limestone. Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Review Essential Questions • How can the different types of clastic sedimentary rocks be

Review Essential Questions • How can the different types of clastic sedimentary rocks be described? • How do chemical sedimentary rocks form? • What are biochemical sedimentary rocks? Vocabulary • clastic sedimentary rock • clastic Copyright © Mc. Graw-Hill Education • porosity • evaporite Types of Sedimentary Rocks