- Slides: 15
SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION What Was it • • • The rise of the United States as an industrial power began after the Civil War Many factors caused this including business, technology, and inventions in the form of natural resources Railroads expanded transportation Large corporations became part of the economy Workers tried to form unions to fight for better wages and working conditions. As industry expanded, workers tried to form unions to fight for better conditions and pay
SECOND INDSTRIAL REVOLUTION • • The Impact Today Corporations continue to play an important role Technology continues to change American Life Unions remain powerful in many industries Technological developments of the late 19 th
Big Idea: By the end of the 19 th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and big business led to the 2 nd Industrial Revolution in the United States.
SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: FACTORS • • Natural Resources Inventions Transportation Big Business Labor Unions New Immigrants Urbanization
SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Factors • • Natural Resources Inventions Transportation Big Business Labor Unions New Immigrants Urbanization
The Industrial Revolution Previously On: • You read what the I. R. was and why/how it started Today On: We are going to look at what how Americans used the resources around them to create new technology and industry to the United States Why It Matters Now: Technology developments during this time paved the way for the continued growth of American Industry
Natural Resources Geography • The Industrial Revolution first started in New England because of it’s geography. • New England was rich in natural resources: oil, iron and coal. • New England had many rivers and streams that provided the waterpower needed to run the machinery in factories and also connected cities and towns. • New England had many shipping ports for the transportation of goods and access to fishing.
Natural Resources • Natural Resources: Things such as minerals, forests, water, and land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain. • Located near or in mountains or mountain regions • The most important were oil, iron and coal • The presence of these resources meant that American companies could obtain them cheaply and did not have to import them from other countries.
Natural Resources OIL • Fuel—in the form of kerosene/gasoline refined from oil or coal—helped spur growth • Oil was in high demand because it could be turned into kerosene • Kerosene was used in lanterns and stoves • In 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania • Entrepreneurs rushed to transform the oil into gasoline which became the most important form of oil • Was a new source of fuel
Natural Resources IRON • Iron is a dense metal, but it is soft and tends to break and rust • Removing the carbon from iron produces a lighter, more flexible, and rust-resistant metal—steel • The Bessemer process, Henry Bessemer: found way to remove the carbon • By 1880, American manufacturers were using the new method to produce more than 90 percent of the nation’s steel • Railroads, with thousands of miles of track, became the biggest customers for steel • Engineers also used steel to make the new bridge connecting New York City and Brooklyn and to build skyscrapers.
Natural Resources COAL • Coal replaced wood and water power • Coal was needed to fuel steam engine trains, steamships and furnaces in factories • Most major American factories began to use immense amounts of coal in steam engines and furnaces • Coal powered the Industrial Revolution!