- Slides: 16
Sec. II. Growing Division & Reform (1820 -1850).
A. The Missouri Compromise (1820). 1. U. S. had 11 free states (North) and 11 slave states (South). a) Maine added to Union as free state. b) Missouri added as slave state. c) No slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of Missouri’s southern boundary. The Compromise by Henry Clay temporarily settled the dispute over westward expansion of slavery. The land from Missouri northward was not good farm land anyway.
The Missouri Compromise (1820)
B. New Era in Politics - Presidential election of 1824 (John Quincy Adams). 1. Democratic-Republicans = Andrew Jackson & supporters; later became Democrats. 2. National Republicans = Adams & supporters; later became Republicans. The disputed Presidential election of 1824 (even though Andrew Jackson had the most votes/electoral votes of all 4 Republicans, no majority of electoral votes. The House of Representatives, led by Speak Henry Clay (4 th place), gave the presidency to John Quincy Adams, who appointed Clay to be Sec’ty of State. Accused of a “corrupt bargain” and led to two major political parties.
Presidential election of 1824. Can you think of another Presidential election that was not decided by the voters? Bush vs. Gore (2001) Throughout 1800’s, hundreds of thousands of white males gained the right to vote as states lowered or eliminated property ownership as a voting requirement (to reflect ideal of the Declaration of Ind. and the social equality of frontier life. As cities and towns grew, the percentage of working people who did not own property grew. 1824, 355, 000 people voted for President; in 1828, 1, 130, 000 voted for President. Andrew Jackson won clear victory in 1828 Presidential election with help from voters in West and South.
C. Spoils system – 1829, President Jackson appointed people to gov’t positions based on party loyalty/support. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison founded the Democratic-Republican party.
D. Native American Removal – 1830, Jackson signed the ‘Indian Removal Act’ to relocate Native Americans. An effort to move Native Americans had been going on for years; trying to move them out of white settlers’ way to uninhabited lands West of the Miss River. 1829, after gold was discovered in Georgia, thousands of settlers swarmed the area, destroyed the native’s lands, and staked their own claims; President Jackson ordered federal troops to remove the Native Americans. The Cherokee fought their removal by appealing to the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Marshall supported the Cherokees in Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (1831) and Worcester vs. Georgia (1832). President Jackson reportedly said “Marshall had made his opinion, now let him enforce it. ” Martin Van Buren, Jackson’s predecessor, sent in Army troops to forcibly remove the Cherokees.
1. Trail of Tears – 2, 000 Cherokee died in camps waiting for the march westward; 2, 000 more died of starvation, disease, & exposure. Martin Van Buren The monument on New Echota Historic Site (GA) honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears. Many Americans supported their removal. Most Native American’s living east of the Miss were forced onto gov’t reservations. Under President Jackson and his successor, Martin Van Buren, 70, 000 Native Americans east of the Mississippi were forced westward.
Route of Native American removals
E. The Second Great Awakening (1 st Great Awakening in early 1700’s). 1. Joseph Smith – Mormon; relocated to Utah due to religious persecution. 2. Benevolent societies – spread religion & fought social problems; mostly women. Joseph Smith (1805– 1844) was a U. S. religious leader who founded the Latter Day Saint movement, aka Mormonism. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; suffered harassment in mid-west states.
F. Women’s Movement. 1. The Seneca Falls Declaration (1848) – Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott (also against slavery) organized the 1 st women’s movement. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and daughter Harriet. Lucretia Mott Women in early 1800’s still weren’t able to vote and didn’t need to become educated voters, so there were few opportunities for school. Women in the house seen as virtuous & prepared them for a proper Christian life. Focus on suffrage, or the right to vote; later called Suffragettes. First time the language of the Bill of Rights was used to call for women’s rights. Declaration of Ind. : “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal…”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, (1815 – 1902), was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States. Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
G. Abolition Movement – Early 1800’s, call for immediate end to slavery. The issue polarized the nation and helped bring about the Civil War. Opposition to slavery actually began in Revolutionary War when Quakers & Baptists in the North & South agreed not to enslave people, viewing it as a sin. American Colonization Society (ACS) by President Monroe and Chief Justice John Marshall encouraged African Americans to resettle in Africa: helped relocate between 12 -20 K to present day Liberia. 1820, over 1. 5 million slaves in US; many second and third generation that opposed resettlement.
This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery.
1. Emancipation – freeing of enslaved persons. 2. William Lloyd Garrison – His newspaper, the Liberator, helped Abolition movement grow. 3. Frederick Douglass – free African American in Maryland; published antislavery newspaper, the North Star, & an autobiography. The Liberator led to founding of New England Antislavery Society in 1832 and the American Antislavery Society in 1833. Many women worked in Abolition movement (Lucretia Mott and Prudence Crandall in Conn).
Although many Northerners disapproved of slavery, they objected to Abolitionism even more due to fears of the South’s economy crumbling. Slaves moving to the North and overwhelm the labor and housing markets, could lead to a war, Southern landowners not able to repay Northern bank loans. 1831, after a slave rebellion left over 50 white Virginians dead, Southerners demanded and received the suppression of Abolitionist materials on condition of staying in the Union. 1836, Congress passed a “gag rule” shelving all Abolitionist petitions without debate.