School of Business Yonsei University Innovation Improvisation Sung

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School of Business Yonsei University Innovation & Improvisation Sung Joo Bae Assistant Professor Operations

School of Business Yonsei University Innovation & Improvisation Sung Joo Bae Assistant Professor Operations and Technology Management

Realms of Individual & Collective Action in Organizations Novelty High (Divergence from prior experience)

Realms of Individual & Collective Action in Organizations Novelty High (Divergence from prior experience) Low Improvisation Composition (Jazz improv. ) (Classic concert) Algorithmic Execution Algorithmic Planning (Operators in nuclear power plant) (SOP Generation for NPP) Low High Temporal Separation of Conception and Execution Source: Fisher & Amabile

A Model of Improvisational Creativity Conception Preparation -Provocative competence (Interrupting habit patterns) External Problem

A Model of Improvisational Creativity Conception Preparation -Provocative competence (Interrupting habit patterns) External Problem Presentation Execution Source: Fisher & Amabile + Barrett Improvised creative outcome - Can feed into the idea generation stage of compositional creativity - Retrospective Sensemaking Improvisation (Simultaneous/Synchronous Processes) Expertise -Well learned facts & routines Creativity-relevant Processes - Distributed Task - Soloing & supporting - Continual negotiation - Risk orientation - Hanging out: Co. P Intrinsic Motivation Focus on problem/opportunity Work Environment - Embracing errors - Experimental culture - Real-time info flow - Minimal structures

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Provocative competence – Interrupting

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Provocative competence – Interrupting habit patterns – The difficulty of trying new things Consequences!!! – Remember “Kodak”? • Embracing errors as source of learning – Errors often lead to a great invention, but it has to be embraced and nurtured by other members in the organization

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Minimal structures that allow

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Minimal structures that allow maximum flexibility – Music: patterns of melodies, chord changes, sections and phrases – Organization: stories, myths, visions, slogans, mission statements, trademarks

Seven Characteristics • Distributed task – Continual negotiation toward dynamic synchronization • Innovation is

Seven Characteristics • Distributed task – Continual negotiation toward dynamic synchronization • Innovation is an ongoing social accomplishment You don’t know what the other player is going to play, but on listening to the playback, you hear that you related your part very quickly to what the other played just before you. It’s like a message that you relay back and forth… You want to achieve that kind of communication when you play. When you do, your playing seems to be making sense. It’s like conversation - Tommy Flanagan (Jazz Pianist), 1994

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Reliance on retrospective sense-making

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Reliance on retrospective sense-making – The improviser may be unable to look ahead at what is going to play, but he can look behind at what he has just played; thus each new musical phrase can be shaped with relation to what has gone before. He creates his form retrospectively. – Those junk boxes at IDEO – Samsung’s efforts to understand what they have done recently

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Hanging out – Membership

Seven Characteristics of Improvisation Related to the Creative Organization • Hanging out – Membership in communities of practice (Informal educational system with rich context) – Organizations must see beyond conventional job descriptions and recognize the rich aspects of practices • Alternating between soloing and supporting – Rotating leadership

The Processual ‘Flow’ of Different Models Sequential model Flexible model Compression model Improvisational model

The Processual ‘Flow’ of Different Models Sequential model Flexible model Compression model Improvisational model

Kind of Blue (1959) Album by Miles Davis • Musicians – Miles Davis (trumpet),

Kind of Blue (1959) Album by Miles Davis • Musicians – Miles Davis (trumpet), Bill Evans (piano), John Coltrane, Julian Adderley (saxophone), Jimmy Cobb (drum), Paul Chambers (bass) • Davis had only given the band sketches of scales and melody lines on which to improvise (modal jazz) – In traditional jazz improvisation (hard bop style), a chord progression or series of harmonies are given to the musicians

Davis elaborated on this form of composition in contrast to the chord progression predominant

Davis elaborated on this form of composition in contrast to the chord progression predominant in bebop, stating "No chords. . . gives you a lot more freedom and space to hear things. When you go this way, you can go on forever. You don't have to worry about changes and you can do more with the [melody] line. It becomes a challenge to see how melodically innovative you can be. When you're based on chords, you know at the end of 32 bars that the chords have run out and there's nothing to do but repeat what you've just done—with variations. I think a movement in jazz is beginning away from the conventional string of chords. . . there will be fewer chords but infinite possibilities as to what to do with them. “ - In a 1958 interview with Nat Hentoff of The Jazz Review

Review of Kind of Blue (1959) • Producer Quincy Jones, one of Davis' longtime

Review of Kind of Blue (1959) • Producer Quincy Jones, one of Davis' longtime friends, wrote: "That [Kind of Blue] will always be my music, man. I play Kind of Blue every day—it's my orange juice. It still sounds like it was made yesterday". • Pianist Chick Corea, one of Miles' acolytes, was also struck by its majesty, later stating "It's one thing to just play a tune, or play a program of music, but it's another thing to practically create a new language of music, which is what Kind of Blue did. "