School Finance in Colorado Bagels with the Board

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 School Finance in Colorado Bagels with the Board: University of Colorado November 20,

School Finance in Colorado Bagels with the Board: University of Colorado November 20, 2019 Tracie Rainey, Executive Director Colorado School Finance Project

Colorado School Finance Project (CSFP) Who are we? What do we do? 11/20/2019 •

Colorado School Finance Project (CSFP) Who are we? What do we do? 11/20/2019 • Non-profit, non-partisan • Supported by school district contributions • School finance analysis for local and state policy makers since 1995. Mission: To compile, collect and distribute research-based, non-partisan information and data on topics related to school finance for state and local policymakers.

Today’s Goals Who are our students? Constitution Elements of School Finance System School Finance

Today’s Goals Who are our students? Constitution Elements of School Finance System School Finance and Litigation Adequate School Funding School Finance and our Ballot School Finance and our legislature 11/20/2019 Topics on the horizon

Who are our students? 2018 -19: Over 910, 000 students • 1997 – 2015:

Who are our students? 2018 -19: Over 910, 000 students • 1997 – 2015: average yearly increase about 10, 000 students • 2016 – 2017: average increase about 5, 000 students annually • Demographers predict recent trend to continue What are students’ characteristics? What services might they need? Where do they live? 11/20/2019

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Colorado (CDE) Special Education Students Receiving Services 2018 -19: More than 100, 000 students

Colorado (CDE) Special Education Students Receiving Services 2018 -19: More than 100, 000 students Historically: About 11% of Colorado’s students receive special education services National (National Center of Education Statistics) About 13% of public-school students receive Special Education services 11/20/2019

Between 2003 -04 and 2018 -19: - Colorado added 152, 000 students total -

Between 2003 -04 and 2018 -19: - Colorado added 152, 000 students total - Students qualifying for Free/Reduced Lunch increased about 150, 000 students. 2003 -04: 30% of students qualified for Free or Reduced Lunch 11/20/2019 2018 -19: 41% of students qualified for Free or Reduced Lunch

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Colorado Gifted Student Count and Average Per GT Pupil Amount 80, 000 70, 000

Colorado Gifted Student Count and Average Per GT Pupil Amount 80, 000 70, 000 $ 187 $ 139 $ 157 68, 163 66, 677 60, 000 50, 000 $ 200 $ 150 [VALUE] 40, 000 $ 100 30, 000 20, 000 $ 50 10, 000 0 2005 -06 2006 -07 2007 -08 2008 -09 2009 -10 2010 -11 2011 -12 Gifted Student Count 11/20/2019 2012 -13 2013 -14 2014 -15 Statewide Average Per Pupil Funding 2015 -16 2016 -17 2017 -18 2018 -19 $-

Statehood – education clause: 1. Local control Colorado Constitution 2. Curriculum 3. Hiring and

Statehood – education clause: 1. Local control Colorado Constitution 2. Curriculum 3. Hiring and salary schedules 4. Graduation requirements 5. District organization of schools 6. Local taxing authority 11/20/2019

State board is elected, they hire state’s education commissioner Results 178 districts currently –

State board is elected, they hire state’s education commissioner Results 178 districts currently – reduced over time District size range from less than 50 to over 90, 000 students Large state with vast differences in demographics, wealth, and need 11/20/2019

Base Funding – what does the base represent? What are adjustments or weights for

Base Funding – what does the base represent? What are adjustments or weights for students? What are the Elements in School Finance? What are adjustments or weights for school districts? What isn’t included in the formula currently? What might be included in a formula? 11/20/2019

Lujan – have large inequities, taxpayer and student Giradino – BEST Snapshot of school

Lujan – have large inequities, taxpayer and student Giradino – BEST Snapshot of school finance litigation in Colorado Lobato – Adequate school funding Mesa County – addressed part of the lack of local tax base Dwyer – enabled the legislature to cut funding – budget stabilization factor 11/20/2019

What does Adequate School funding look like in Colorado? Based upon researched based analysis

What does Adequate School funding look like in Colorado? Based upon researched based analysis 11/20/2019

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Basic funding Funding for Every

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Basic funding Funding for Every Student $10, 000 $9, 202 $9, 000 • Colorado’s base funding would have to increase by almost $3, 000 to meet the needs of a student with no special needs in a district with no special characteristics. $8, 000 $7, 000 $6, 292 $6, 000 $5, 000 $4, 000 $3, 000 $2, 000 $1, 000 $0 11/20/2019 Adequacy Updated 2016 Colorado Base Funding 15 -16

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: At-risk funding Funding for At-Risk

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: At-risk funding Funding for At-Risk Students $13, 500 • The study found that an additional 35% is needed to ensure students eligible for free lunch (at-risk proxy) meet standards. $12, 423 $12, 000 $10, 500 $9, 000 $7, 500 $6, 292 $6, 000 $4, 500 • Currently, Colorado provides 12% per at-risk pupil on a lower base. 11/20/2019 $3, 000 $1, 500 $0 Adequacy Updated 2016 Colorado Funding 15 -16

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: ELL funding Funding for ELL

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: ELL funding Funding for ELL students • The study found that an additional 47% is necessary to ensure students who are learning English can meet standards. $15, 000 $13, 527 $13, 500 $12, 000 $10, 500 $9, 000 $7, 500 $6, 433 $6, 000 $4, 500 • Colorado provides less than $200 per ELL pupil on top of a lower base. $3, 000 $1, 500 11/20/2019 $0 Adequacy Updated 2016 Colorado Funding 15 -16

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Rural funding Funding for Rural

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Rural funding Funding for Rural Students $25, 000 • The study found that an additional 140% is needed to ensure that students without special needs in small rural districts (200 -500 students) can meet standards. $22, 085 $20, 000 $15, 000 $10, 000 $7, 550 $5, 000 • Colorado’s school finance formula doesn’t come close. 11/20/2019 $0 Adequacy Updated 2016 Colorado Funding 15 -16

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Special Education funding Funding Students

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Special Education funding Funding Students with Special Needs $57, 052 $60, 000 • The study found that an additional 73% -700% is necessary to meet the needs of special ed students, depending on severity of disabilities. • Colorado caps total special ed funding. In 2015, the average per student was $1, 800 or about 30%. 11/20/2019 $50, 000 $40, 000 $26, 962 $30, 000 $20, 000 $17, 760 $10, 000 $0 Mild Moderate Adequacy Updated 2016 Severe Base Funding 15 -16

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Gifted and Talented funding •

Adequate funding for public schools in Colorado Every Child: Gifted and Talented funding • The study found that meeting the needs of students identified as Gifted and Talented require an additional 25% in funding. Funding for Gifted and Talented Students $12, 000 $11, 503 $10, 000 $8, 000 $6, 468 $6, 000 $4, 000 • Colorado provides about $176 per identified pupil on top of the inadequate base. 11/20/2019 $2, 000 $0 Adequacy Updated 2016 Colorado Funding 15 -16

Amendment 23 REF C Prop 103 What has happened at our ballot box? Amendment

Amendment 23 REF C Prop 103 What has happened at our ballot box? Amendment 66 Marijuana Tax Amendment 73 Prop CC 11/20/2019

3 Interim Committees on School Finance • Met for last 3 years • Currently

3 Interim Committees on School Finance • Met for last 3 years • Currently discussing legislation BEST - facilities What has happened legislatively? Budget Stabilization Factor – cut funding Interim committee on Gallagher Interim committee on General Fund pressures HB 18 -1232 – superintendent’s formula and basis for A 73 Prop CC 11/20/2019

Decade of Cuts to K-12 Education – Links to Additional Information on www. cosfp.

Decade of Cuts to K-12 Education – Links to Additional Information on www. cosfp. org 11/20/2019 Over $8. 1 B: 2009 -10 to 2019 -20 Decade of Cuts to K-12 Education spreadsheet Budget Stabilization Factor (Negative Factor) District Budget Cut Discussions CSFP School Finance & Education Reform Timeline

Decade of Cuts to PK-12 Education Budget Stabilization Factor Proportionately reduces total funding to

Decade of Cuts to PK-12 Education Budget Stabilization Factor Proportionately reduces total funding to each school district - ongoing $0 ($200, 000) ($400, 000) ($600, 000) ($800, 000) ($1, 000, 000) ($1, 200, 000) 11/20/2019 FY 09 -10 FY 10 -11 FY 11 -12 FY 12 -13 FY 13 -14 FY 14 -15 FY 15 -16 FY 16 -17 FY 17 -18 FY 18 -19

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Guiding Questions: 1. What does “base” funding represent? Missing pieces in Legislative Discussions 2.

Guiding Questions: 1. What does “base” funding represent? Missing pieces in Legislative Discussions 2. What does it cost to educate a student? 3. What does it cost to educate students of need? 4. What does it cost to be rural? 11/20/2019 5. What are the “opportunity costs” not recognized?

Looking Ahead Budget Forecast – 12/20/2019 Interim Committee on School Finance Gallagher - legislation

Looking Ahead Budget Forecast – 12/20/2019 Interim Committee on School Finance Gallagher - legislation 11/20/2019 Uniform Mill Levy - legislation 2020 ballotrevenue + ?

Tracie Rainey Questions: Now & Later 11/20/2019 • T. Rainey@cosfp. org • 303 -860

Tracie Rainey Questions: Now & Later 11/20/2019 • T. [email protected] org • 303 -860 -9136 Stay connected: • www. cosfp. org • @COSFP • Colorado School Finance Project - Facebook