RRB 190 195 Insolation INcoming SOLar Radi ATION

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RRB 190 -195

RRB 190 -195

 Insolation = INcoming SOLar Radi. ATION Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun

Insolation = INcoming SOLar Radi. ATION Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon Duration of Insolation: Length of time from sunrise to sunset that the sun is in the sky Absorption of Insolation: Taking in of energy Reflection of Insolation: Process in which energy waves bounce off a surface or interface/boundary Terrestrial Radiation: the longer infrared heat waves radiated by Earth

 The strength of insolation depends on: the angle of insolation, the duration of

The strength of insolation depends on: the angle of insolation, the duration of insolation, and the type of surface the insolation strikes The noon sun has the greatest angle of insolation In the Northern Hemisphere the lowest noontime angle of insolation is reached at the winter solstice Vertical ray: sunlight that strikes Earth’s surface at an angle of 90 degrees, which occurs everyday at noon somewhere in the tropics

 Generally, as the angle of insolation and the duration of insolation increases, temperatures

Generally, as the angle of insolation and the duration of insolation increases, temperatures at Earth’s surface increase Duration of insolation varies greatly with latitude

 Earth absorbs most of the sunlight that falls on it Ozone and other

Earth absorbs most of the sunlight that falls on it Ozone and other gases in the upper atmosphere absorb high-energy radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays Long-wave radiation, such as infrared, is absorbed by water and carbon dioxide Some absorbed energy is changed into heat waves that reradiate back into the atmosphere

 Under normal conditions in the Pacific, water moves upward from deep ocean currents

Under normal conditions in the Pacific, water moves upward from deep ocean currents along western S. A. This cold water is rich in oxygen and nutrients When there is less upward movement and the warmer surface is not as productive, there are less fish/plants Usually happens around Christmas It can create extra rainfall in the Eastern Pacific and droughts in the Western Pacific El Nino shows the strong influence of oceans on the atmosphere

 Clouds reflect roughly half of the light falling on them Ice and snow

Clouds reflect roughly half of the light falling on them Ice and snow reflect a large amount of insolation and absorb very little Black road surfaces generally absorb over 90% of the solar energy Calm water is a good reflector when the sun is low, but absorbs most of the sunlight when the sun is high in the sky

 Energy waves sent back into space from Earth’s surface are longer in wavelength

Energy waves sent back into space from Earth’s surface are longer in wavelength than energy waves in the range of visible light emitted from the sun Longer infrared heat waves are absorbed by gases such as CO 2 and water vapor This traps the heat and is known as the greenhouse effect Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too cold for most familiar forms of life Too much greenhouse effect can make it too hot

 We are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by cutting down forests, burning

We are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by cutting down forests, burning fossil fuels, and increasing methane amounts (by-product of petroleum and decaying organic matter)

 A time lag exists between the time of greatest intensity of insolation and

A time lag exists between the time of greatest intensity of insolation and the highest air temperature This occurs because insolation energy is first absorbed by Earth’s surface and then rereradiated as heat energy that warms the air At noon- incoming radiation reaches a max, and the ground continues to absorb energy for 2 -3 more hours than it radiates Once Earth radiates more than it receives from the sun, Earth cools The daily high temp. usually happens around 2 -3 pm

 Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Effect