ROME • Roman Kingdom • Roman Republic • Roman Empire
Roman Kingdom • 8 th century BC to 6 th century BC • 753 BC - said to be founded by brothers Romulus and Remus near Tiber River. • Mythology tells they were demigod sons of Mars. Romulus killed his brother and became the first king of Rome. • Typical monarchy. • Etruscans gained early political control over the city. • Initially a city of outcasts and exiles, with low birthrates due to a higher male to female ratio.
Roman Republic • The senate abolished kingship in 509 BC after the last Roman King, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. (Lucius Tarquinius Superbus) • Constitution and senate, with some royal veto powers. • Many wars with neighboring territories. • Many civil wars within the republic. • Julius Caesar assassinated in 27 BC by conspiring senators at the Theatre of Pompey. • Sic semper tyrannis (thus always to tyrants)
Roman Empire • First emperor was Octavian, given the title Augustus. (Caesar) • Empire vastly expanded. • Christian persecution. • Peter becomes first Pope and was executed by Emperor Nero. • Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic slavery was prevalent for years. • Constantine the Great. Ruled from 306 -337 AD. First Christian emperor of Rome. Made Rome better in many ways, including separation of military and civil duties, religious tolerance, and economic reforms.
Sack of Rome and the Fall • Alaric I, King of the Visigoths- Barbarians from beyond the Rhine sacked Rome in 410 AD. • Ostrogoths- Eastern gothic people. • Christianity gave Germanic tribes significant advancements. • Tired of slavery and Roman tyranny. • Roman economy was already collapsing. Military decline, starvation, and religious discord was rampant throughout Rome. • German economy and civilizations began to flourish.