- Slides: 9
Roman Leaders **Many different popular leaders tried to improve conditions in Rome
The Gracchus Brothers: § Looked out for the small farmers by: 1. Limiting the amount of land a person could own 2. Giving public land to the poor 3. Providing free wheat for the poor
General Marius: § Started a paid army that provided jobs for the poor Ø This caused a problem b/c soldiers gave loyalty to the general who hired and paid them, NOT the gov’t - this meant that the gov’t could be overthrown by a general and his troops
Triumvirate: = a group of 3 people with equal power
Julius Caesar: § Gave land to ex-soldiers who didn’t have any § Began public works projects which provided jobs § Planned + paid for gladiatorial games that were free (these kept the poor and unemployed from becoming an angry mob) Ø Helped the poor
§ Increased size of the Senate to include business people. Ø Helped businessmen § Cut back activities of the publicans (tax collectors) § Gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards, & Gauls (from the area that would become France) Ø Looked out for the conquered people § Using the Egyptian calendar, he adopted a new calendar = Julian calendar. We still use this today.
Ø J. C. was a dictator -______ Senators were afraid he was too powerful, so on March 15, 44 BC, they assassinated him. “Beware the Ides of March!” (“Ides” = the middle)
The Republic Collapsed: § Following Caesar’s death - civil wars. § Octavian, Caesar’s grand-nephew, took control of the gov’t. and brought an end to the civil wars. § In 31 BC, Octavian, better known as Augustus, became the emperor of the Roman Empire.
William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar