- Slides: 6
Roles Outline q. Roles q. Why Roles q. The Power of Roles v. Film: Zimbardo Prison Study
Roles q Roles v. Sets of behaviors that persons expect of occupants of a position v. Formal v. Informal q Divides up responsibility q Role expectations v. What we expect of members based on their role in the group v. Role differentiation Ø The development of distinct roles in the group
12 -6 Role Behavior n Role overload: n When expectations exceed what a person is able to do. n Role conflict: n When the set of expected behaviors includes conflicting demands. Ø Intrarole conflict Ø Interrole conflict n Role ambiguity: n When expectations are unclear because people fail to provide information necessary for performing a role; not knowing what to do, e. g. vague job descriptions or unclear criteria for promotion n People in collectivist cultures tend to be clearer about role expectations, while individualist cultures leave more room for discretion.
12 -10 a Table 12 -3 a Functional Roles Performed by Group Members Task Roles Initiator Information seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Elaborator Coordinator Orienter Evaluator Energizer Procedural technician Recorder Description Suggests new goals or ideas Clarifies key issues Clarifies pertinent values Promotes greater understanding Pulls together ideas and suggestions Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s) Tests group’s accomplishments Prods group to move along or to accomplish more Performs routine duties Performs a “group memory” function
12 -10 b Table 12 -3 b Functional Roles Performed by Group Members (continued) Maintenance Roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Gatekeeper Standard setter Commentator Follower Description Fosters group solidarity Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Encourages all group members to participate Evaluates the quality of group processes Records comments on group processes/dynamics Serves as a passive audience
The Power of Roles q Roles are powerful influences on member behavior q Stanford Prison Study v. Zimbardo & colleagues