- Slides: 37
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle The continuous and reversible processes that illustrates how one rock changes to another. “One rock is the raw material for another”.
Rock Cycle Processes – Crystallization
Rock Cycle Processes - Weathering
Rock Cycle Processes - Lithification
Rock Cycle Processes Metamorphism
Characteristics of magma • Magma is molten rock that originates in the mantle, at depths of 100 -350 km. • Igneous rocks form from molten rock when it cools and crystallizes into the rock-forming minerals. • Magma that reaches the surface is called lava.
Igneous Rocks Volcanic (extrusive) igneous rocks form from lava on the surface. Plutonic (intrusive) igneous rocks from magma beneath the surface and are exposed later
Volcanic Rock – Rapid rate of cooling • Volcanic rocks crystallize from lava on the surface. • Lava contacts air and water and cools rapidly, inhibiting large crystal formation. • The most common volcanic rock is basalt.
Plutonic Rock – Slow rate of cooling • Plutonic rocks crystallize from magma in the interior of the crust, which are later exposed. • Magma is insulated and cools slowly, allowing large crystals to form. • Most common plutonic rocks are from the granite family.
Igneous Rock Classification • Texture – (overall appearance of rock, but especially pertains to mineral crystal size) – linked to how rock formed since crystal size depends on rate of cooling • Mineral composition – chemical makeup of magma or lava
Texture – Size and arrangement of crystals • Slow cooling rate promotes the growth of fewer but larger crystals • Fast rate forms many small crystals • Very fast rate forms glass – Overall appearance (vesicles, glassy etc. )
Phaneritic - Coarse-texture Granite
Aphanitic - Fine texture Rhyolite
Porphyritic – Bimodal crystal size • Large crystals, phenocrysts, form slowly from magma. • Magma erupts; crystals are suspended in an aphanitic matrix, the groundmass.
Glassy texture – indicates lack of crystalline structure due to rapid cooling Obsidian
Granitic (Felsic) Composition • Composed of primarily of light silicates • Contains high amounts of silica (Si. O 2) • Major constituents of continental crust.
Basaltic (Mafic) Composition • Composed of dark silicates and calcium-rich feldspar • More dense than granitic rocks • Comprise the ocean floor as well as many volcanic islands.
Sediment • solid rock or mineral fragments transported and deposited by water, wind, ice or gravity • dissolved minerals which evaporate or precipitate from water, or are secreted by organisms • accumulate over time as loose unconsolidated layer.
Sedimentary rocks form when sediment from weathered and eroded rock is compacted or cemented into solid rock Fig. 3 -2, p. 46
Sedimentary rocks • Formed by the lithification of sediment • compaction by burial • cementation by minerals from ground water • Sedimentary rocks contain evidence of past environments • Provide information about climate • Often contain fossils
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks composed of solid sediment from weathered rocks sandstone conglomerate organic shale
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks • Composed of minerals precipitated from surface or ground water (chemical sediment). • The upper picture shows rock salt on the Bonneville Salt Flats. • The lower photo shows veins of rock gypsum embedded in mudstone. • Both of these chemical sedimentary rocks are examples of evaporites.
Biogenic Sedimentary Rocks • composed of sediment of biological origin (e. g. shell fragments, plant material). • The upper photo is limestone, composed of an ancient coral reef in the Guadaloupe Mountains of Texas. • The lower photo is of bituminous coal. • COAL
Metamorphic rocks form when heat, pressure or chemical reaction alters existing rocks Fig. 3 -CO, p. 44
Metamorphism The transition of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed. Metamorphic rocks are produced from • Igneous rocks • Sedimentary rocks • Other metamorphic rocks
Metamorphism • Progresses incrementally (low to highgrade) • Rock remains solid throughout process • Agents of metamorphism – heat (between 150° and 800° C) – pressure (5 km below the surface the pressure is about 1500 x greater than atmospheric pressure – chemically-active pore fluids.
Heat – from the Geothermal Gradient or rising magma
Pressure from overlying rocks
Low grade to high grade Metamorphism (left-right)
Types of Metamorphism • Contact or thermal metamorphism – usually caused by contact of a rising magma body with host rock • Regional metamorphism (mountain building) – caused by tectonic plate interactions • Hydrothermal metamorphism – chemical alterations from hot, ion-rich water
Changes due to metamorphism • recrystallization of mineral grains and chemical precipitates • Formation of new, stable minerals • Foliation – parallel alignment of minerals due to pressure.
Granite is a common parent rocks of Gneiss (“Nice”) Igneous Granite Metamorphic Gneiss
Sandstone is the parent rock for quartzite Sandstone - sedimentary Quartzite - metamorphic
Limestone is the parent rock for marble Limestone - sedimentary Marble - metamorphic