Revolutions in Europe and Latin America 1790 1848
- Slides: 46
Revolutions in Europe and Latin America (1790 -1848) Chapter 20
Aim Students will be able to define and explain the different ideologies of Conservative and Liberal.
Congress of Vienna At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to uproot the “revolutionary seed” Concert of Europe- included Britain, Spain, Austria, and Prussia- all the leading European powers Clash of people with opposing ideologies Ideologies- systems of thought and belief
Conservative vs. Liberal
Conservatives Prefer the Old Order Congress of Vienna was a victory for conservative forces Conservatives agreed to work together in an agreement to call the Concert of Europe- to support the political and social order that had existed before Napoleon and the French Revolution Conservative ideas appealed to peasants Want to return to the way things were before 1789
Conservatives Prefer the Old Order Wanted to restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe Supported a social hierarchy where lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors Backed an established church: Catholic in Austria and southern Europe; Protestant in northern Europe; and Eastern Orthodox in eastern Europe
Conservatives Prefer the Old Order If change had to occur, it must come slowly Defended peace and stability
Liberals and Nationalists Seek Change Inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution Liberalism and nationalism ignited a number of revolts against established rule Liberals spoke mostly for the middle class and bourgeoisie Liberals included business owners, bankers, and lawyers, as well as politicians, newspaper editors, writers, and others.
Liberals Promise Freedom Liberals wanted governments to be based on written constitutions and separation of powers Spoke out against divine-right monarchy, the old aristocracy, and the establishment of churches Defended the natural rights of individuals to liberty, equality, and property Favored a republican form of government over a monarchy
Liberals Promise Freedom Saw the role of government as limited to protecting basic rights such a freedom of thought, speech, and religion Believed only male property owners Later: universal manhood suffrage- giving all adult men the right to vote Strongly supported laissez-faire economics
Nationalists Strive for Unity By 1815 - Europe had several empires that included many nationalities Examples: Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman Empire had diverse people.
Nationalism in Europe In the 1800 s, there were groups who shared a common heritage and they wanted their own states. Austria- example- had several diverse groups- each wanting their own homeland. Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the ultimate goal was creating their own homeland
Revolutionaries against Old Order Rebellions erupted in the Balkan Peninsula Balkans- filled with various religions and ethnic groups
Serbia Seeks Independence 1804 -1813 leader named Karageorge Guerilla war against Ottomans 1815 - Milos Obrenovic- led Serbians to a successful rebellion Serbia won autonomy (self-rule)
Greece Against Ottoman Rule 1821 - Greeks wanted to get out of Ottoman Rule Greeks were divided but all wanted to end Ottoman rule Had support by Lord Byron- fought for Greek independence By 1830 - Greece was independent
Other European Lands Revolts occur in Europe- Spain, Portugal, and Italian states All want a constitutional government
Section 2: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Congress of Vienna In France, Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII issued a constitution and created a twohouse legislature Allowed limited freedom of the press
Successor to Louis XVIII When Louis XVIII died, Charles X inherited the throne He suspended the legislature Limited the right to vote Restricted the press Liberals and radicals were upset with the change
The “Citizen King” Charles X abdicated Louis Philippe was chosen by moderate liberals- also cousin to Charles X Louis Philippe got along with bourgeoisie Went around meeting people and interacting with citizens Extended suffrage to wealthier class
Belgium Wins Independence Congress of Vienna wanted to create a strong barrier to prevent France from expanding in the future Belgium combined Dutch and Belgians were catholic and their economy was based on manufacturing Dutch were protestant and their economy was based on trade By 1831 - Belgium was independent
Poland Late 1700 s- Russia, Austria, and Prussia divided Poland Wanted to be reunited
French Revolt Again Discontent Recession Poor harvest February Days- Government tried to silence critics, demonstrators were killed. June Days- shut down of national workshops, rioting of peasant workers. Middle class both feared and distrusted the socialists while the working class harbored hatred for bourgeoisie
Napoleon III Presented himself as a man who cared about social issues like poverty Had 90% of the votes
Rebellion in Germany Potato famine brought peasants and workers into a struggle Forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution Prussia offered the crown of a united Germany
Section 3: Revolts in Latin America
Discontent By 1700 s- revolutionary fever swept Western Europe and impacted Latin America
Peninsulares- Spanish born. Could only hold top jobs in gov’t and church Creoles- Europeandescended Latin Americans owned haciendas Mulattoes. African and European descent Mestizos. Native American and European descent
Enlightenment Inspires Latin America 1700 s- educated creoles read the works of Enlightenment thinkers Saw how well the Enlightenment worked and its impact on the French Revolution Simon Bolivar- creole- liked the ideas of “liberty, equality, and fraternity. ”
Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1. Enlightenment Ideas writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. 2. Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions. 3. Inspiration of American and French Revolutions. 4. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon and Spain Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808 so he could put his brother on the throne Latin American leaders saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to reject foreign domination
Haiti French-ruled colony of Hispaniola Known for sugar plantations Sugar plantations were employed by Africans
Toussaint L’Ouverture Slaves were revolting Needed a skillful leader- Toussaint L’Ouverture He was a self-educated former slave Slave revolutions goal: abolish slavery! This revolution took more lies than any other revolution in the Americas.
Haiti and Independence 1802 - Napoleon sent army to take over the former French colony Toussaint fought against Napoleon for the independence of Haiti The French captured Toussaint 1803 - Yellow Fever destroyed the French army By 1820 - Haiti became a republic
Mexico and Central America Revolt 1810 - Creole priest of Mexico, Father Miguel Hidalgo, fought for freedom Famous speech- “el Grito de Dolores” – the cry of Dolores- called for Mexicans to fight for independence. One year after the “Grito” Hidalgo was captured and executed
Jose Morelos continued the Mexican fight for freedom Father Jose Morelos was a mestizo who called for wide-ranging social and political reform He wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, abolish slavery, and give the vote to all men
Aim Students will be able to review the causes of the Latin American Revolution.
Mexico Wins Independence 1820 - Agustin de Iturbidebrought Mexico to independence He was basked by creoles, mestizos, and Native Americans He then took the title Emperor Agustin I Set up the Republic of Mexico
Simon Bolivar and Latin America Bolivar admired the French and American Revolutions Dreamed of winning their own independence from Spain Bolivar was from Venezuela He dealt with civil war in Venezuela Bolivar was exiled twice from Venezuela to Haiti
Simon Bolivar and Latin America Bolivar takes his army against Spain Surprised the Spanish in an attack in 1819 1821 - Bolivar succeeded in freeing Venezuela Bolivar is now known as the “Liberator” Took over Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
Jose de San Martin Creole Born in Argentina but went to Europe for military training 1816 - was the General that was to help Argentina achieve freedom from Spain Army went from Argentina and Chile Defeated Spanish in Chile and Peru
Freedom in Latin America Wars of independence ended in 1824 Bolivar wanted to unite his land into one nation- Gram Colombia Gran Colombia- Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador
Brazil and Independence When Napoleon conquered Portugal, the Portuguese family fled to Brazil When the king returned to Portugal, he left his son, Dom Pedro to rule Brazil Dom Pedro accepted a constitution that provided freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and an elected legislature