REVOLUTION 1775 Second Continental Congress May 10 thLeaders

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REVOLUTION!

REVOLUTION!

1775 - Second Continental Congress � May 10 th-Leaders meet again to discuss :

1775 - Second Continental Congress � May 10 th-Leaders meet again to discuss : � Independence � Raise a new army � Choose a leader…. . Washington

1775 - Battle of Bunker Hill, Breeds Hill (Boston) � British capture both hills,

1775 - Battle of Bunker Hill, Breeds Hill (Boston) � British capture both hills, but suffer 1, 054 casualties. � Colonists only lose 450.

Significance? � Britain realized this would not be easy � Colonists gained confidence

Significance? � Britain realized this would not be easy � Colonists gained confidence

1775 - Olive Branch Petition - Colonists sent King George a final plea for

1775 - Olive Branch Petition - Colonists sent King George a final plea for reconciliation and stated their loyalty to him. King rejected it completely…the war is on

Common Sense � Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 � Urges colonists to

Common Sense � Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 � Urges colonists to fight for Independence � 120, 000 copies sold in three months

Declaration of Independence � Written by Thomas Jefferson-1776 � Officially breaks all ties with

Declaration of Independence � Written by Thomas Jefferson-1776 � Officially breaks all ties with Britain � Lists grievances against King George III and spells out natural human rights……. . � For wealthy, white, landowning men that is

John Locke � English political philosopher who developed the “contract theory” of gov’t �People

John Locke � English political philosopher who developed the “contract theory” of gov’t �People have the right to overthrow a bad gov’t *His ideas influenced Madison and Jefferson

Continental Army � Established by the 2 nd Continental Congress in May 1775 �

Continental Army � Established by the 2 nd Continental Congress in May 1775 � Washington was chosen to lead � Hung together by a thread throughout the war. � Men would enlist for a year or less, then quit. � Its amazing G. W. held the army together as long as he did.

Soldiers faced harsh conditions �- starvation � - disease � - lack of supplies

Soldiers faced harsh conditions �- starvation � - disease � - lack of supplies � - lack of clothing/shoes � - harsh weather

Those who served � Colonists -AKA Patriots or Continentals � Britain -AKA Redcoats �

Those who served � Colonists -AKA Patriots or Continentals � Britain -AKA Redcoats � Hessians - German mercenaries hired by British

Tories (loyalists) � Several hundred thousand in the colonies � 20 -40% of the

Tories (loyalists) � Several hundred thousand in the colonies � 20 -40% of the population � 80, 000 fled to the British � Many stayed and were harassed

� African Americans - 5, 000 fought for the Patriots � Native Americans -

� African Americans - 5, 000 fought for the Patriots � Native Americans - Iroquois league broke up and different tribes helped each side. � Women- spies, messengers, cooks, nurses

Patriots

Patriots

Patriots � -poor, young men from rural backgrounds � -very little military training �

Patriots � -poor, young men from rural backgrounds � -very little military training � -lacked military discipline and experience � GW had 19, 000 men total from age 15 to 60 from local militias and Continental Army � Low point was 5, 000 troops in the harsh winter of 1777 -78

Redcoats � 40, 000 men � -also poor, young men from rural background, but….

Redcoats � 40, 000 men � -also poor, young men from rural background, but…. � -highly trained � -well supplied � -more experienced, professional military

Redcoats

Redcoats

War strategies � Guerrilla warfare- Hit and run tactics � War of Attrition- defensive

War strategies � Guerrilla warfare- Hit and run tactics � War of Attrition- defensive war that simply outlasts the enemy � GW continued these strategies knowing he could not beat the British in conventional warfare

War numbers � Patriot troops- 20, 000 in 1776 � British troops- 40, 000

War numbers � Patriot troops- 20, 000 in 1776 � British troops- 40, 000 in 1776 �Hessians – 30, 000 �Loyalists – 50, 000 � Patriot Navy- formed in 1775 …. . weak � British Navy- 78 well armed ships

Battle of Trenton � GW crossed the Delaware River on � Xmas night 1776.

Battle of Trenton � GW crossed the Delaware River on � Xmas night 1776. They surprised 1, 400 Hessians at daybreak taking 918 prisoner without a single patriot killed � -this victory gave the Patriots a huge boost in confidence

Battle of Saratoga � Patriots beat the British in 1777 � Turning point in

Battle of Saratoga � Patriots beat the British in 1777 � Turning point in the war because…… � Europeans decide to help Patriots

Valley Forge � Winter of 1777 -78 � Washington and his men hunker down

Valley Forge � Winter of 1777 -78 � Washington and his men hunker down in Pennsylvania and nearly starve to death � Luckily Baron Von Steuben from Prussia and French reinforcements come to revive the Patriots � They emerge stronger than ever

Foreign Aid � Marquis de Lafayette - France � Baron von Steuben - Prussia

Foreign Aid � Marquis de Lafayette - France � Baron von Steuben - Prussia � Kazimierz Pulaski - Poland � These men provided much needed training and leadership to the struggling colonists

Abigail Adams � Wife of John Adams � Strong supporter of: � Independence �

Abigail Adams � Wife of John Adams � Strong supporter of: � Independence � Women’s rights � Abolition of slavery

Benedict Arnold � Talented general � By 1780 he feels under-appreciated so he plans

Benedict Arnold � Talented general � By 1780 he feels under-appreciated so he plans to betray America and hand over West Point to the British � plot is foiled. . he escapes to British � America is energized by this

Battle of Yorktown � outnumbered and outflanked British General Cornwallis surrenders to GW in

Battle of Yorktown � outnumbered and outflanked British General Cornwallis surrenders to GW in Virginia 1781. . . � this marks the end of the War !!

British strategy � Isolate New England from the rest of the colonies � Naval

British strategy � Isolate New England from the rest of the colonies � Naval strength � shock and awe colonists into submission

Betsy Ross � 1 st American flag. . . maybe

Betsy Ross � 1 st American flag. . . maybe

Treaty of Paris � -September 3 rd, 1783 � -U. S. is granted independence

Treaty of Paris � -September 3 rd, 1783 � -U. S. is granted independence � -land from Atlantic coast to Miss river � -Americans must pay debts owed to Britain

The Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris