Revision Session Topics to be covered Crime and

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Revision Session Topics to be covered • Crime and deviance • Youth • Family

Revision Session Topics to be covered • Crime and deviance • Youth • Family • Methodology, socialisation, culture and identity

Crime and deviance

Crime and deviance

Crime and deviance The types of deviance • Cross-cultural deviance: Something that is deviant

Crime and deviance The types of deviance • Cross-cultural deviance: Something that is deviant in some cultures e. g. having more than one wife • Historical deviance: Something that is deviant only at a certain time e. g. slavery • Situational deviance: Something that is deviant only in certain situations e. g. punching someone in the face during a boxing match. • Deviance based on position/role: Something that is deviant for many but occupation/role may make it non -deviant e. g. a soldier shooting a member of the opposing army.

Controlling criminal behaviour Agents of social control • Formal and informal agents of social

Controlling criminal behaviour Agents of social control • Formal and informal agents of social control • Paul Willis (1977) on working class boys at school argued that there was a counter-school culture. He researched 12 boys and found that they chose not to conform to the norms and values of the school. He felt that their behaviour was not only due to peer group pressure, but actually had more to do with the influence of the workplace and the family. In 1977, Willis felt it was clear to the boys that working-class children got working-class jobs, and that, therefore, their school life was not important. Because of this they did not conform and did not care about the middle-class norms and values the teachers were trying to force upon them. Willis’ findings confirm that our behaviour is controlled in a variety of ways.

Solutions to crime • The functions of the penal system • Methods of punishment

Solutions to crime • The functions of the penal system • Methods of punishment

Measurement of crime -The Dark Figure Of Crime • There are several different ways

Measurement of crime -The Dark Figure Of Crime • There are several different ways of measuring the crime rate. Victim surveys and self-reported studies have been developed in order to try to reveal more of the dark figure and so get a more valid picture of crime and criminals than that produced by the official statistics. None of the methods are perfect, however, and we must, therefore, be careful when coming to any conclusion about who is actually committing crime in society and how much crime is going on.

Measurement of crime -Patterns of crime Victim surveys • Normally a large scale sample

Measurement of crime -Patterns of crime Victim surveys • Normally a large scale sample where people are interviewed about what crimes they have been a victim of in the last year. • A better way of uncovering a more valid picture of crime than the official statistics, because it removes the problem of the non-reporting and non-recording of crime. • Probably the best-known victim survey is the British Crime Survey, which is carried out every year on a national sample of people.

Measurement of crime - Problems with victims’ surveys • There are no guarantees that

Measurement of crime - Problems with victims’ surveys • There are no guarantees that information given in interviews is actually accurate. • People under the age of 16 are not interviewed. • Some sociologists question how useful a national crime survey actually is.

Measurement of crime- self report studies • This time people are asked what crimes

Measurement of crime- self report studies • This time people are asked what crimes they have committed, usually by having them tick off from a list what they have done. • Everything is anonymous and confidentiality is assured. This is thought to encourage respondents to be more truthful. • This methods increases validity because whether the crime has been reported and the criminal convicted becomes irrelevant. • It allows researchers to measure the amount of crime committed by those people who have never appeared in the official statistics.

Measurement of crime- self report studies • Many people are reluctant to take part.

Measurement of crime- self report studies • Many people are reluctant to take part. • Those people that do take part may not tell the truth. These reports are usually completed with young people- there are therefore not representative of all crimes committed. • The reports often focus on delinquent rather than criminal behaviour and so are limited in their usefulness.

The impact of crime on the community • Many people believe that it is

The impact of crime on the community • Many people believe that it is the fear of crime, rather than the reality, that controls our behaviour and thoughts. Obviously this is closely linked to the sensationalist and often stereotyped reporting in the media. • On a positive level, some communities may benefit from punishments for criminals that require them to do community work such as removing graffiti or tidying public gardens. • The negative is that people end up living in fear, homes armed with every security device on the market, and neighbours that do not know or trust one another.

Explanations of crime

Explanations of crime

Explanations of crime Age • Peer pressure • Subculture • Boredom • Lack of

Explanations of crime Age • Peer pressure • Subculture • Boredom • Lack of social control at home and in education • Labelling theory Cicourel (1976)

Explanations of crime Gender • Differential gender socialisation Oakley (1981) • Different levels of

Explanations of crime Gender • Differential gender socialisation Oakley (1981) • Different levels of social control • Gender stereotyping

Explanations of crime Ethnicity • Poverty and unemployment • Police targeting • Discrimination and

Explanations of crime Ethnicity • Poverty and unemployment • Police targeting • Discrimination and racism in the criminal justice system (self-fulfilling prophecy) • Different norms and values

Social class • Socialisation and subculture • Lack of opportunities • Status frustration •

Social class • Socialisation and subculture • Lack of opportunities • Status frustration • Marxism

Possible 24 mark questions • ‘More powerful formal agents of social control are the

Possible 24 mark questions • ‘More powerful formal agents of social control are the only way to reduce crime. ’ • ‘If `capital punishment was reintroduced, all crime would be reduced. ’ • ‘Official statistics are completely useless. ’ • ‘The structure of society is what leads people to crime. ’

24 mark questions • ‘All deviance is relative. ’ • ‘Crime would stop if

24 mark questions • ‘All deviance is relative. ’ • ‘Crime would stop if parents took control of their children. ’ • ‘The reintroduction of the death penalty would solve all crime. ’ • ‘Using the victim surveys is the only way to get a true picture of crime. ’ • ‘People commit crime because they are bored. ’

Youth

Youth

Youth • Sociologist Philippe Aries (1962) believed that the concept of childhood was only

Youth • Sociologist Philippe Aries (1962) believed that the concept of childhood was only invented in the Middle Ages. He stated that before that, at the age of six, children became miniature adults.

The invention of childhood 1700 s: At a young age children learnt a craft.

The invention of childhood 1700 s: At a young age children learnt a craft. Girls didn’t learn to read or write, depending on how rich their families were. Some girls were married by 12. Early 1900 s: 1870 Education Act children had to go to school from 5 -10. They learnt a curriculum based on their gender and given the cane if they behaved badly. Due to employment acts children under 8 no longer worked in the mines, up chimneys or in the factories. Late 1900 s: Butler Act 1944 - children stayed at school until 15, raised to 16 in 1973. 1988 Education Act boys and girls all learnt the same curriculum. 21 st century: Children cannot be hit by a family member if it leaves a bruise. 2009: Children have to go to school until they are 16 (planned to increase to 18 by 2015). Children can work, but not during school hours. Children cannot marry until they are 16 (if their parents agree) but they can fight for their country!

The disappearance of childhood • Neil Postman (1983) The adult messages children see every

The disappearance of childhood • Neil Postman (1983) The adult messages children see every day in the mass media, they become ‘confused little adults’. He called these children ‘tweenagers’ and used examples of underage drinking , smoking and underage sex as evidence.

Biological or Social Construction? • Youth is a term that people define in different

Biological or Social Construction? • Youth is a term that people define in different ways and apply to different age groups. This can be seen when looking at the laws for young people. • Many do however define youth as the period between childhood and adulthood. Sociologists are interested in whether youth is actually a specific biological stage or something that society creates and defines.

Social construction The law, in every society the rights and responsibilities of young people

Social construction The law, in every society the rights and responsibilities of young people differ greatly. E. g. in England you must be 17 to drive, in many US states you can drive at 16. Social norms and customs vary. In England the average for a female to marry is just over 27, in Niger it is just over 17. Emotional and behavioural norms: Whilst it is often believed that for all youth life is confusing and emotional, some sociologists such as Margaret Mead (1927) argue that this is not the case in every society. Mead claimed that Samoan young people did not have this period of turmoil. Biologically, all youth go through hormonal changes at puberty. Young people experience changes in both their attitudes and behaviour. Many young people go through times of being irritable and unsure of themselves.

Transition • It appears that youth may be more related to change and transition,

Transition • It appears that youth may be more related to change and transition, than to biological age. • It could be seen as a time that allows a young person to leave behind childhood ideas and behaviour and become an adult. In some cultures it is a time of experimenting with adult roles, such as beginning part-time work. • In the contemporary UK this transition may include learning to drive, whereas in other cultures it may be marked very differently. • The ceremonies and proceedings used to mark the transition from childhood to adulthood are often known as wither rites of passages or initiation rites.

The peer group as an agent of social control • A peer group is

The peer group as an agent of social control • A peer group is others of the same age, with the same background, interests and social status. Many young people feel that their peer group is a main agent of social control. Although it is informal agent, the influence of a peer group when we are 15 can be very strong. • Often it is fear of rejection or being laughed at that controls our behaviour. However, sanctions can also be verbal or physical. It is the pressure to conform from our peers that make us decide to follow this agent of social control rather than another. For example, you might have to decide whether to go home on time, as dictated by your family, or to stay out longer, as dictated by your peer group. Peer group pressure is often stronger at different points in our lives. • In the media, peer group pressure is commonly associated with negative behaviour, but it can be positive. Your peer group can convince you not to break the law or complete your homework. This is known as positive peer pressure, as it helps you to conform to society’s norms and values.

Youth subculture • The idea that all young people have a similar set of

Youth subculture • The idea that all young people have a similar set of norms and values, which is different to that of other age groups, is known as youth culture. Young people are connected by norms that are created by: • The legal position of young people- e. g. the norm of attending school • The biological changes that young people go through e. g. mood swings • Society’s expectations of young people e. g. the norm of not being a parent.

Youth subcultures = Different cultures that are within youth culture. The youth subculture we

Youth subcultures = Different cultures that are within youth culture. The youth subculture we chose to mix with partly defines our identity. The different features of identity are: • Behaviour • Attitudes • Music • Leisure activities • Dress and hairstyle

 • Youth subcultures can link people with similar interests and create identity, but

• Youth subcultures can link people with similar interests and create identity, but some youth may choose to join based on their biological or social characteristics.

Class Some subcultures seem to unite young people of similar economic status. J Clarke

Class Some subcultures seem to unite young people of similar economic status. J Clarke (1976) researched Skinhead culture and wrote that it united members of the working class, allowing its members to release their frustration at being poor and unemployed.

Ethnicity • Ethnicity clearly links some groups of young people. Studies of Bhangra claim

Ethnicity • Ethnicity clearly links some groups of young people. Studies of Bhangra claim that this music from the Punjab has created a youth subculture. It incorporates music, style and dance which have now spread to a wide audience. • This subculture has crossed over to mainstream culture, as seen through fusion music such as Apache Indian which combines Bhangra and hip hop.

Gender • In the 1970 s, some sociologists argued that young teenage girls were

Gender • In the 1970 s, some sociologists argued that young teenage girls were part of a gendered subculture. Mc. Robbie and Garber (1976) referred to this as a bedroom subculture. They wrote that it existed separately from boys, who were hanging out in public. • They interviewed a group of girls and found that their culture was led by the media and involved experimenting with hair and make-up and discussing boys in their bedrooms.

The growth of youth cultures and subcultures • In the 1950 s, Britain experienced

The growth of youth cultures and subcultures • In the 1950 s, Britain experienced a growth of affluence. This meant that British people had some money to spend, as they were richer. • Young people who were leaving school at 15 had jobs and, therefore, had money to spend on their chosen subculture, its music and fashion. • As time went on and the school leaving age rose, young people had even more time to spend on their chosen subculture. • Business owners and advertisers wanted the young people’s money, so they started making products and marketing them to the young- known as manipulation by the media.

Reasons to join a subculture • Shared interests: such as music, style and fashion.

Reasons to join a subculture • Shared interests: such as music, style and fashion. • Rites of passage: all young people, before they become adults, experiment and try to be their own person through different subcultures. • Solution to problems: for example, if you are facing racism, you may choose to join others and, therefore, share your problems. • Peer group pressure: this may make you feel you have to join in.

Key aspects of being in a gang • • • • Territory: gangs are

Key aspects of being in a gang • • • • Territory: gangs are often associated with an area. Recently the media have highlighted the growth of signature graffiti, which includes the use of a postcode. The gang will feel some ownership over an area and see any uninvited entry by other gangs as an aggressive act. Tag wars using graffiti are an example of this. Delinquent subculture: gangs are bound by different norms and values from those of other young people, usually associated with law breaking. Whether through drug selling, violence or tagging, membership of these groups is often about taking risks and committing crime. Loyalty: gangs are bound together by the rule that membership means you must pledge allegiance to the gang. A member must be prepared to do anything for the gang when asked. Hierarchy: gangs often have a clear hierarchy with a known leader or leaders. They are often seen to be well organised, although some studies show this is not the case for all gangs.

Reasons for joining a gang • Boredom: for many joining a gang is relief

Reasons for joining a gang • Boredom: for many joining a gang is relief from boredom. It is little more than something to do. • Family: fictional presentation of gangs in the media focus on the idea that young people who join gangs are lacking in family and/or role models • Friendship: for some, the people they ‘hang out with’ are merely their friendship groups rather than a gang. The media sometimes reports normal youth behaviour as gang behaviour. Their uniform appearance is due to shared tastes and their behaviour is just related to friends having fun. The supposed hierarchy, with a known leader, is just the norm of a group where some take on a role as leader, whilst others take on the role of followers. The strong loyalty of the group results from the value we have for friends.

Reasons for joining a gang • Status frustration: Albert Cohen (1955) stated that some

Reasons for joining a gang • Status frustration: Albert Cohen (1955) stated that some working class children in the USA fail to succeed in school and have little social status. Due to this he noted that some, out of resentment, join a group which has different norms and values to the society in which they are a failure. In this new group or gang, the young person can gain a new, higher status due to the different (often delinquent) norms and values. • Sense of belonging: Walter Miller (1958) felt that adolescence is a time when young people often feel lonely and unsure of themselves. As a result they feel the need to belong, to fit in. for this reason gang membership is popular as it offers a sense of belonging.

Reasons for joining a gang • Social network: In Howard Williamson’s study Milltown Boys

Reasons for joining a gang • Social network: In Howard Williamson’s study Milltown Boys (1997), after observing a delinquent gang for some time, he concluded that it was not organised. Although the gang cared about territory and hierarchy, they were not focused on illegal activities – it was more about having a social network. • Peer group pressure: In some films, gang membership is presented as a rite of passage in the area depicted. It is not optional. Joining the gang is what you have to do or you will be picked on as a ‘nonnie’.

24 mark questions Youth ‘Innocence has been eroded. ’ ‘Youth is just a biological

24 mark questions Youth ‘Innocence has been eroded. ’ ‘Youth is just a biological stage. ’ ‘Peers are the most important agent of social control for teenagers. ’ Youth subcultures exist only because of class divides. ’ ‘Young people join gangs because they have similar interests. ’ Family • ‘We only need families for economic support. ’ • Roles in the family are no where near equal. ’ • ‘Family life has not changed much since the 1950 s. ’ • ‘Marriage will never disappear. ’ • ‘It is always best to raise children in a nuclear family. ’

Mind pegs • Postman (1983) tweenagers, underage drinking and smoking. • MINTEL survey 90%

Mind pegs • Postman (1983) tweenagers, underage drinking and smoking. • MINTEL survey 90% of 14 year olds worn make up (2004) • Girl magazines such as Bliss and Cosmo Girl giving away vouchers for free tanning • Child too aware of their bodies and worried about adult issues e. g. sexuality • Comparing life to the 1700 -1800 s children have a longer childhood. They do not need to work and cannot get married at 12. • The law – cannot be held criminal responsible before 10 (8 in Scotland) treated as a minor until 18. • Physical element of childhood cannot ever disappear

Mind pegs • Postman (1983) tweenagers, underage drinking and smoking. • MINTEL survey 90%

Mind pegs • Postman (1983) tweenagers, underage drinking and smoking. • MINTEL survey 90% of 14 year olds worn make up (2004). • Girl magazines such as Bliss and Cosmo Girl giving away vouchers for free tanning. • Child too aware of their bodies and worried about adult issues e. g. sexuality. • Comparing life to the 17001800 s children have a longer childhood. They do not need to work and cannot get married at 12. • The law – cannot be held criminal responsible before 10 (8 in Scotland) treated as a minor until 18. • Physical element of childhood cannot ever disappear.

Possible 24 mark questions • ‘Innocence has been eroded. ’ • ‘Youth is just

Possible 24 mark questions • ‘Innocence has been eroded. ’ • ‘Youth is just a biological stage. ’ • ‘Peers are the most important agent of social control for teenagers. ’ • ‘Young people only join a subculture because they like the clothes. ’

24 mark questions • ‘All deviance is relative. ’ • ‘Crime would stop if

24 mark questions • ‘All deviance is relative. ’ • ‘Crime would stop if parents took control of their children. ’ • ‘The reintroduction of the death penalty would solve all crime. ’ • ‘Using the victim surveys is the only way to get a true picture of crime. ’ • ‘People commit crime because they are bored. ’

Family

Family

Family and identity • Families act as agents of socialisation (teaching us society’s culture)

Family and identity • Families act as agents of socialisation (teaching us society’s culture) and agents of social control (controlling our behaviour). • We learn different social roles for example being a son or being a sister. Some are ascribed (given to us e. g. being a son or daughter) and some are achieved (chosen by us e. g. being a parent). All these roles and influences help to form our identity. • We must remember that the family is only one of many groups that influence our identity.

Family and socialisation • Socialisation is continually happening and is also a two way

Family and socialisation • Socialisation is continually happening and is also a two way deal. Parents learn from their children as children continue to learn from their parents. Methods of socialisation • Deliberate instruction • Role models • Positive/negative sanctions • Play

Conclusion about non-socialised children • Children need good physical care. • Children have the

Conclusion about non-socialised children • Children need good physical care. • Children have the ability to learn. • Socialisation is essential in order to become a full member of society. The genes we inherit (which are given to us by our parents) only give us the potential to become members of society. • Some children recover if their early socialisation is disrupted. • If language learning starts too late a ‘critical time’ might have been passed and language may never develop fully.

Changing family relationships • • • • Children are now more likely to… Survive

Changing family relationships • • • • Children are now more likely to… Survive childhood. Be cared for by someone other than their parent in early years (often grandparent). Have better living conditions e. g. their own room, money and ‘things’. Have more parental supervision because parents worry about their safety. Have a say in family decision making. Be in ‘cash rich but time poor’ families, where both work and the dad helps out at home. Experience the breakdown of the parents relationship but often not their death. Spend all or part of their childhood in reconstituted, single-parent or same-sex families. Depend on their families for longer and live in a ‘boomerang’ family when older. Middle class kids are more likely to better off and better housed, to be healthier and often go to better schools. Ethnic minorities, especially Asians, are often more likely to be part of extended families and to have more siblings and parents who don’t separate. Gender differences remain. For example in the amount of work they are expected to do at home and the amount of supervision they get. Boys are favoured.

The dark side of the family • Functionalist sociologists have a very positive view

The dark side of the family • Functionalist sociologists have a very positive view of the family which is shared by many, however some researchers and sociologists (Feminists, Marxists) believe there is a ‘dark side’ to the family. A situation in which family life damages its members. • Leach (1967) said that nuclear families were too small to meet individual’s needs and that families were the source of conflict and disappointment.

Traditional family structures • • Nuclear family: Married parents Didn’t cohabit before marriage Vowed

Traditional family structures • • Nuclear family: Married parents Didn’t cohabit before marriage Vowed to stay together till death Monogamous Husbands and wives had different roles The husband was the leader, the breadwinner The wife was the housewife who would love, honour and obey Criticism stated that women were unsatisfied, oppressed, had few choices (homosexuality, single parenthood considered deviant) and that there was often a hidden ‘dark side’ to the nuclear family.

Extended family • In the 1950’s Young and Willmott (1957) studied Bethnal Green, East

Extended family • In the 1950’s Young and Willmott (1957) studied Bethnal Green, East London, then a white working class community. • They found that most people belonged to ‘extended families’, which usually included three generations; grandparents, parents and children. Family members spent a lot of time together and were matrilocal (mother/ daughter tie most important and married daughters would stay near their mothers).

The symmetrical family • In 1973 Young and Willmott suggested conjugal roles were becoming

The symmetrical family • In 1973 Young and Willmott suggested conjugal roles were becoming symmetrical i. e. shared by men and women which differed from traditional opinion about the traditional nuclear family. They found this ‘symetrical family’ to be nuclear, privatised (i. e. separate from relatives and neighbours) and symmetrical (husbands and wives had similar roles). They felt this type family began in the middle classes and was spreading throughout society. They found roles were ‘similar’ and not ‘identical’.

Response to the symmetrical family • Ann Oakley (1974) felt that Willmott and Young

Response to the symmetrical family • Ann Oakley (1974) felt that Willmott and Young exaggerated the ‘symmetrical’ nature of these families. Her research concluded that women still felt they did the majority of housework and that the children were still their responsibility but that they did get more ’help’. • Women are often subject to the ‘part-time trap’. They are still expected to do more at home because they ‘only’ work part-time. • The dual burden of work and home because men are slow to help at home. Gershuny (1992) called this lagged adaptation. Men are adapting to women working and therefore having to do more at home more slowly than women are adapting to having to do both. • There is an increase in people employing house hold assistants to do cooking, cleaning and other household chores.

Structural changes in the family • The number of first time marriages has gone

Structural changes in the family • The number of first time marriages has gone down from 400, 000 in 1971 to 170, 000 today. • Cohabitation, living together as partners without being married, is increasing. • Most people do marry though and feel it’s the best environment to raise children in. • Asian communities often don’t cohabit first, have high marriage rates and get married earlier than the UK average.

Divorce • 1900 – Divorce is rare and seen as deviant. • Since the

Divorce • 1900 – Divorce is rare and seen as deviant. • Since the 1960’s divorce has increased. Today it is estimated that 45% of marriages will end in divorce.

Why? • Legal change • Changing attitudes • Changing expectations – people expect more

Why? • Legal change • Changing attitudes • Changing expectations – people expect more from marriage and can be disappointed. People ask “is this marriage working for me? ” This is referred to as confluent love. • Changing role of women • Isolation – with families increasingly being located away from their families there are less people around to stay together for or help couples stay together. • Lack of children • Longer life expectancy

Divorce and children • Divorce does have impacts on the children though. Rodgers and

Divorce and children • Divorce does have impacts on the children though. Rodgers and Pryor (1998) looked at these effects and found; • Short-term distress is common. • There is a risk of longer-term problems such as health and educational success but most children do not experience them. • Parent’s ability to cope, the amount of family conflict and the quality of contact with the absent parent do affect the outcome.

Alternatives to the family • • Cared for children Communal living Friends Living alone

Alternatives to the family • • Cared for children Communal living Friends Living alone (12%)

24 mark questions • ‘We only need families for economic support. ’ • Roles

24 mark questions • ‘We only need families for economic support. ’ • Roles in the family are no where near equal. ’ • ‘Family life has not changed much since the 1950 s. ’ • ‘Marriage will never disappear. ’ • ‘It is always best to raise children in a nuclear family. ’

Other types of family • • Lone parent families Reconstituted families Beanpole families Gay

Other types of family • • Lone parent families Reconstituted families Beanpole families Gay and lesbian families

Sociologists Clarke – class- skinheads Oakley – family manipulation and canalisation Albert Cohen- Labelling

Sociologists Clarke – class- skinheads Oakley – family manipulation and canalisation Albert Cohen- Labelling – police Rodgers and Pryor – divorce –impact on children • Leach – family – too many functions • •