- Slides: 34
Review for Thurs, May 28 th Exam on the Renaissance
Intro-the Renaissance § What are the differences between the Medieval times and the Renaissance?
Medieval Art expressed values of the church or warfare. “After life” Scholars returned to the classical documents before the fall of Rome. “Here and Now”
What was the Renaissance? The rebirth of art and learning. The rediscovery of Greek and Roman heritage.
What was the Medici family known for?
In 1434, Cosimo de’ Medici won control of Florence’s government. Medici was one of several members of a powerful family that ruled as dictators and were patrons of the arts.
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and access to the Greek and Rome heritage. Merchants were interested in the arts.
How did humanism influence the growth of learning?
The focus was on human potential and achievements. Humanists studied Ancient texts to understand Greek values. They influenced artists and popularized classical education. (History, literature, and philosophy)
How did ideas about piety-religious devotion- and a simple life change?
The spirit of society was more secular. The worldly concern of “here and now” emphasized the secular life rather than ecclesiastical. People do not have to worry about offending god.
Renaissance Artists and Writing What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors?
Educated members were supposed to create art. Artists and sculptors were influenced by classical art. They portrayed the importance of individuals and realism.
How did Michelangelo, Leonardo, and Raphael transform art or sculpture? Michelangelo’s David and the Sistine Chapel -realism Leonardo’s Last Supper and Mona Lisa -Tremendous emotion and geometric features. Raphael’s the School of Athens and the wedding of the virgin --the influence of Greek thought and perspective
How did the writings of Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Erasmus demonstrate the values of humanism? Petrarch was an early humanist poet. Machiavelli wrote The Prince. His advice urged leaders to be ruthless to protect the state over individuals. Erasmus was Dutch who wrote in the vernacular. His writings criticized the Church.
What factors led to the beginning of the Renaissance in northern Europe?
The end of the plague. The city of Flanders-Netherlands and Belgium area became more prosperous in 1400’s. Scholars interested in the common people, the vernacular, and realistic themes. EX: Durer, Van Eyck, and Erasmus
How did the invention of the printing press help spread learning and Renaissance ideas? Gutenberg brought many changes. 3, 000 books to 15 million in Europe over 60 years. Cheaper to produce and more literate pop.
Protestant Reformation Why was Martin Luther upset with the Catholic Church?
The sales of indulgences, simony, and the power of the pope.
How did Luther’s 95 theses lead to a religious revolution in Europe?
Once the complaints started spreading and Luther refused to back down, change was upon Europe. The Pope excommunicated him. However, Luther’s beliefs became more available to the middle class.
What were the important beliefs of Lutheranism? By faith alone Against five of seven Catholic sacraments Against the Pope
What were the most important beliefs that John Calvin of Geneva put forth with Calvinism? Predestination Good works Structured community life
What was the result of Henry VIII challenging the Church of England?
Created the Anglican church with several different sects The King or Queen was in charge.
Catholic/Counter Reformation What took place at the Council of Trent? This was led by the Popes, Cardinals, and other high level Catholics. It was a response to the Protestants.
What did the Catholics do to counter the Protestants? What did the Catholics do to reform their church? Counter: Faith alone is wrong, Protestantism that went against was dangerous. Inquisition and charges of witch craft Reform: Change--qualified priests Jesuit placed emphasis on spreading religion and education Stronger penalties
Legacy More power to the monarchs Religious war
Science How did Copernicus’s heliocentric theory differ from Ptolemy’s theory? Sun was the center of the universe What did Johannes Kepler prove? Elliptical rotations rather than circular
How did Galileo revolutionize science? Proved Copernicus theory Used telescope and learned about the moon and planets Studied gravity and motion
Encounter and Exploration What were the causes of exploration? -technology -monarchs- $ -humanism -gold, god, glory What new technologies made this possible? Astrolabe Compass Sextant Caravel--Triangular
How did Prince Henry and Portugal help shape exploration? Henry of Navarre set up a navigation school. Portugal took on voyages to Africa and Asia. De Gama set up trading posts in India. Empire --Brazil
What impact did Columbus, Magellan, Cortez, and Pizarro have? Columbus- voyages left hundreds of thousands dead. “New World” that started the Columbian exchange of products. Magellan-goal was to circumnavigate, ended up in the Philippines Cortez-Conquistidore from Spain who took over the Aztec empire in Mexico. Pizarro-took over the Inca empire in Peru.