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Results of the Monitoring Programme for Pesticide Residues in Norway 2000 and 2001 M. Tomtum, C. Blom, G. T. Varran, J. Paulsen, A. L Christiansen*, B. Holen* and K. Johansen* Norwegian Food Control Authority, P. O. Box 8187 Dep. N-0034 Oslo, Norway *Norwegian Crop Research Institute, Pesticide Laboratory, Osloveien 1, N-1430 Ås, Norway INTRODUCTION The Norwegian monitoring programme for pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables has existed since 1977. The programme has gradually been expanded over the last years (Fig. 2), as a consequence of increased public awareness of questions related to the use of pesticides. More than 100 different commodities, both imported and domestically produced, are included in the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme covers 176 pesticides including some isomers and breakdown products (See the attached leaflet). Samples are taken at wholesaler's warehouses in different parts of Norway. The number of surveillance samples of each commodity does not reflect their share of the market, as more samples are taken of commodities suspected to contain residues. The samples were analysed by the Norwegian Crop Research Institute, Pesticide Laboratory. Number of samples In 2001 there were three special projects in addition to the main monitoring programme. These were fruits and berries for the processing industry, vegetables for the processing industry and dried fruits. Number of pesticides analysed National tolerances for pesticide residues in foodstuffs were established at the end of 1993. The maximum residue limits (MRLs) are harmonised with the European Community (EC) directives. In addition, some national MRL’s are included. Figure 2. Number of samples and pesticides in the monitoring programme 1992 - 2001 RESULTS – projects, 2001 ANALYTICAL METHODS Import Domestic Total All samples were analysed by a GC multi-residue method covering 137 pesticides including some isomers and breakdown products in 2000 and 144 compounds in 2001. The samples were extracted using the Mini-Luke procedure and analysed on GC with NP- and EC-detectors without any further cleanup. Three compounds were determined by GC/MS. 8, 6 % 5, 7 % 31, 3 % 27, 5 % A total of 24 pesticides were determined by LC/MS using two multi-residue methods and four single-residue methods. (See the attached leaflet). Approximately 1500 samples have been analysed by LC/MS during 2000 and 2001. For the determination of dithiocarbamates 702 samples have been analysed by a spectrophotometric method. 3, 9 % 0, 0 % 68, 8 % 68, 6 % 85, 7 % 35 Samples 16 Samples 51 Samples Figure 3 a. Findings in fruits and berries for the processing industry QUALITY ASSURANCE · Accreditation since 1997 · Three level calibration and analysis of a control sample with each batch of samples · Exceedings of MRLs: • confirmation by GC/MS or LC/MS • analysis of two additional analytical portions with matrix-matched standards and recovery test 114 Samples 16 Samples 62 Samples 176 Samples RESULTS – monitoring programme Figure 3 b. Findings in vegetables for the processing industry Results 2000 Domestic Total 33, 3 % Import 17, 7 % > MRL 52, 1 % 1, 2 % 44, 5 % < MRL/no established MRL 2, 5 % 64, 1 % 81, 0 % 2709 Samples 90 Samples 1581 Samples 1128 Samples Results No residues found 3, 5 % Figure 3 c. Findings in dried fruits, 2001 Table 1. Commodities with the highest number of samples exceeding the MRL Domestic Impor t Commodity Import Mango 17, 0 % 1, 1 % 41, 4 % 51, 1 % 81, 9 % 7, 4 % 2196 samples 888 samples 1308 samples Figur 1. Summary of results for fresh fruit and vegetables > MRL < MRL/no established MRL Carambola Pesticides Number of samples Total 47 27 >MRL 1 7 carbendazim , dithiocarbamates, imazalil, prochloraz, thiabendazole carbendazim , chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, imazalil 11 chlorothalonil , iprodione, prochloraz, thiabendazole Papaya 36 9 Spring onion 38 7 Celery 70 7 chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, cypermetrin, procymidone , Parsley root 24 9 diazinon Carrot 267 5 diazinon Strawberry 229 3 tolylfluanid Celery 77 3 iprodione azoxystrobin, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorothalonil , procymidone Domestic No residues found CONCLUSION During 2000 and 2001 a total of 4905 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were analysed. About 41 % of the samples were domestically produced. On average, 3. 8 % of the samples exceeded the MRLs (Fig. 1). For the imported products 5. 6 % of the samples exceeded the MRLs, whereas only 1. 2 % of the domestic samples were exceedings. Among the domestic commodities violations were most frequently seen in parsley root and carrots (table 1). Among the imported products mango, carambola, papaya, spring onion and celery had the highest number of samples exceeding the MRLs. Thiabendazole, imazalil and iprodione were the pesticides most frequently detected in imported fruits and vegetables, while iprodion, tolylfluanid and cyprodinil were most often found in domestic products. In the project on fruits and berries for the processing industry a total of 51 samples were taken of which there were 31 % with pesticide residues, and 4 % were exceedings of the MRL. In the project on vegetables in the processing industry 176 samples were taken. 18 % of samples contained pesticide residues, 1. 5 % were exceedings. In the project on dried fruits 90 samples were taken. Only 5. 5 % contained pesticide residues, and none exceeded the MRL. Residue levels are usually low and exceedings are moderate and in general of no health concern.