Respiratory System Lungs and Air Passages WHY ARE

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Respiratory System Lungs and Air Passages

Respiratory System Lungs and Air Passages

WHY ARE THEY NEEDED? n TAKE IN OXYGEN – n GAS NEEDED BY ALL

WHY ARE THEY NEEDED? n TAKE IN OXYGEN – n GAS NEEDED BY ALL BODY CELLS REMOVING CARBON DIOXIDE – GAS THAT IS A WASTE PRODUCT PRODUCED BY THE CELLS

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONSISTS OF: n LUNGS n AIR PASSAGES

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONSISTS OF: n LUNGS n AIR PASSAGES

HOW MUCH OXYGEN DO WE HAVE? n FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY

HOW MUCH OXYGEN DO WE HAVE? n FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM n MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM n MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM NOSE n PHARYNX n LARYNX n TRACHEA n BRONCHI n LUNGS n

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM NOSE n PHARYNX n LARYNX n TRACHEA n BRONCHI n LUNGS n ALVEOLI n

NOSE n NOSTRILS (NARES) – 2 OPENINGS WHERE AIR ENTERS

NOSE n NOSTRILS (NARES) – 2 OPENINGS WHERE AIR ENTERS

NASAL SEPTUM – WALL OF CARTILAGE DIVIDING THE NOSE INTO TWO HOLLOW SPACES

NASAL SEPTUM – WALL OF CARTILAGE DIVIDING THE NOSE INTO TWO HOLLOW SPACES

NASAL CAVITIES n n TWO HOLLOW SPACES LINED WITH A MUCOUS MEMBRANE WHICH PRODUCES

NASAL CAVITIES n n TWO HOLLOW SPACES LINED WITH A MUCOUS MEMBRANE WHICH PRODUCES MUCOUS TO TRAP PATHOGENS (GERMS) HAS RICH BLOOD SUPPLY AS AIR ENTERS THE CAVITIES, IT IS WARMED, FILTERED, AND MOISTENED

CILIA TINY HAIRLIKE STRUCTURES IN NASAL CAVITY n TRAPS DIRT AND PATHOGENS n THE

CILIA TINY HAIRLIKE STRUCTURES IN NASAL CAVITY n TRAPS DIRT AND PATHOGENS n THE TRAPPED PARTICLES ARE THEN PUSHED TOWARD ESOPHAGUS AND SWALLOWED. n

OLFACTORY RECEPTORS LOCATED IN NASAL CAVITY n SENSE OF SMELL n

OLFACTORY RECEPTORS LOCATED IN NASAL CAVITY n SENSE OF SMELL n

LACRIMAL DUCTS n DRAIN TEARS FROM EYES INTO THE NOSE n PROVIDES ADDITIONAL MOISTURE

LACRIMAL DUCTS n DRAIN TEARS FROM EYES INTO THE NOSE n PROVIDES ADDITIONAL MOISTURE

SINUSES n n CAVITIES IN THE SKULL CONNECTED TO NASAL CAVITY BY SHORT DUCTS

SINUSES n n CAVITIES IN THE SKULL CONNECTED TO NASAL CAVITY BY SHORT DUCTS ALSO LINED WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE PROVIDE RESONANCE FOR THE VOICE

PHARYNX ANOTHER NAME FOR THE THROAT n LOCATED BEHIND THE NASAL CAVITIES n AIR

PHARYNX ANOTHER NAME FOR THE THROAT n LOCATED BEHIND THE NASAL CAVITIES n AIR ENTERS FROM THE NOSE n

SECTIONS OF THE PHARYNX NASOPHARYNX n OROPHARYNX n LARYNGOPHARYNX n

SECTIONS OF THE PHARYNX NASOPHARYNX n OROPHARYNX n LARYNGOPHARYNX n

NASOPHARYNX n n UPPER SECTION BEHIND NASAL CAVITIES CONTAINS PHARYNGEAL TONSILS – ADENOIDS (LYMPHATIC

NASOPHARYNX n n UPPER SECTION BEHIND NASAL CAVITIES CONTAINS PHARYNGEAL TONSILS – ADENOIDS (LYMPHATIC TISSUE) – EUSTACHIAN TUBE OPENINGS FROM EAR

OROPHARYNX n n n MIDDLE SECTION LOCATED BEDHIND ORAL CAVITY RECEIVES AIR FROM NASOPHARYNX

OROPHARYNX n n n MIDDLE SECTION LOCATED BEDHIND ORAL CAVITY RECEIVES AIR FROM NASOPHARYNX & FOOD/AIR FROM THE MOUTH

LARYNGOPHARYNX n BOTTOM SECTION OF PHARYNX WHICH BRANCHES INTO: – TRACHEA n CARRIES LUNGS

LARYNGOPHARYNX n BOTTOM SECTION OF PHARYNX WHICH BRANCHES INTO: – TRACHEA n CARRIES LUNGS – AIR TO/FROM THE ESOPHAGUS n CARRIES FOOD TO THE STOMACH

LARYNX n VOICE BOX – n LIES BETWEEN THE PHARYNX & TRACHEA HAS FRAMEWORK

LARYNX n VOICE BOX – n LIES BETWEEN THE PHARYNX & TRACHEA HAS FRAMEWORK OF CARTILAGE CALLED THE ADAM’S APPLE

What is an Adam’s Apple? When the larynx grows larger during puberty, it sticks

What is an Adam’s Apple? When the larynx grows larger during puberty, it sticks out at the front of the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's larynx doesn't grow as much as a boy's larynx. However, some girls do also have Adam's apples.

LARYNX n CONTAINS 2 FOLDS CALLED VOCAL CORDS A) GLOTTIS – OPENING BETWEEN THE

LARYNX n CONTAINS 2 FOLDS CALLED VOCAL CORDS A) GLOTTIS – OPENING BETWEEN THE VOCAL CORDS AS AIR LEAVES THE LUNGS, THE VOCAL CORDS VIBRATE AND PRODUCE SOUND.

LARYNX B) EPIGLOTTIS – – – LEAF LIKE STRUCTURE CLOSES THE OPENING INTO LARYNX

LARYNX B) EPIGLOTTIS – – – LEAF LIKE STRUCTURE CLOSES THE OPENING INTO LARYNX DURING SWALLOWING PREVENTS FOOD & LIQUIDS FROM ENTERING RESPIRATORY TRACT

Epiglottis

Epiglottis

TRACHEA (WINDPIPE) n n n TUBE EXTENDING FROM LARYNX TO CENTER OF THE CHEST

TRACHEA (WINDPIPE) n n n TUBE EXTENDING FROM LARYNX TO CENTER OF THE CHEST CARRIES AIR BETWEEN PHARYNX & BRONCHI CONTAINS A SERIES OF C-SHAPED CARTILAGE WHICH OPENS IN BACK AND HELPS KEEP THE TRACHEA OPEN

BRONCHI n TWO DIVISIONS OF TRACHEA – n BRONCHUS – – n NEAR CENTER

BRONCHI n TWO DIVISIONS OF TRACHEA – n BRONCHUS – – n NEAR CENTER OF CHEST ONE ENTERS EACH LUNG CARRIES AIR FROM TRACHEA TO LUNGS IN LUNGS – BRONCHI DIVIDE INTO SMALLER BRONCHI

SMALLEST BRANCHES n BRONCHIOLES – END IN AIR SACS CALLED ALVEOLI

SMALLEST BRANCHES n BRONCHIOLES – END IN AIR SACS CALLED ALVEOLI

ALVEOLI n AIR SACS – – RESEMBLES BUNCH OF GRAPES AN ADULT LUNG CONTAINS

ALVEOLI n AIR SACS – – RESEMBLES BUNCH OF GRAPES AN ADULT LUNG CONTAINS APPROXIMATELY 500 MILLION ALVEOLI MADE OF ONE LAYER OF SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TISSUE RICH NETWORK OF BLOOD CAPILLARIES THAT ALLOW OXYGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE TO EXCHANGE BETWEEN BLOOD & THE LUNGS

THE INNER SURFACES OF THE ALVEOLI ARE COVERED WITH SURFACTANT WHICH IS A LIPID

THE INNER SURFACES OF THE ALVEOLI ARE COVERED WITH SURFACTANT WHICH IS A LIPID (FATTY SUBSTANCE) THAT HELPS PREVENT THE ALVEOLI FROM COLLAPSING. PREMATURE BABIES OFTEN DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH SURFACTANT WHICH CAN LEAD TO RESPIRATORY DISTRESS OR RESPIRATORY FAILURE.

NORMAL LUNGS

NORMAL LUNGS

LUNGS OF A SMOKER

LUNGS OF A SMOKER

LUNGS ORGANS DIVISIONS OF THE BRONCHI AND ALVEOLI LOCATED IN THE THORACIC CAVITY

LUNGS ORGANS DIVISIONS OF THE BRONCHI AND ALVEOLI LOCATED IN THE THORACIC CAVITY

LUNGS RIGHT LUNG – HAS 3 SECTIONS/LOBES n SUPERIOR n MIDDLE n INFERIOR LEFT

LUNGS RIGHT LUNG – HAS 3 SECTIONS/LOBES n SUPERIOR n MIDDLE n INFERIOR LEFT LUNG – HAS 2 SECTIONS/LOBES n SUPERIOR n INFERIOR SMALLER BECAUSE HEART LIES MORE TO THE LEFT SIDE OF THE CHEST

RIGHT LUNG WITH ANTERIOR CANCER TUMOR RIGHT LUNG LOWER LOBE PNEUMONIA

RIGHT LUNG WITH ANTERIOR CANCER TUMOR RIGHT LUNG LOWER LOBE PNEUMONIA

PLEURA n MEMBRANE OR SAC ENCLOSING EACH LUNG VISCERAL PLEURA q ATTACHS TO LUNG

PLEURA n MEMBRANE OR SAC ENCLOSING EACH LUNG VISCERAL PLEURA q ATTACHS TO LUNG SURFACE PARIETAL PLEURA q ATTACHS TO CHEST WALL PLEURA SPACE IS LOCATED BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS WHICH IS FILLED WITH A THIN LAYER OF PLEURAL FLUID. HELPS TO LUBRICATE THE MEMBRANE.

PROCESS OF RESPIRATION TWO PHASES: 1) INSPIRATION 2) EXPIRATION

PROCESS OF RESPIRATION TWO PHASES: 1) INSPIRATION 2) EXPIRATION

INSPIRATION n INHALATION n PROCESS OF BREATHING IN AIR n n DIAPHRAGM & INTERCOSTAL

INSPIRATION n INHALATION n PROCESS OF BREATHING IN AIR n n DIAPHRAGM & INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES CONTRACT/CREATES A VACUUM OXYGEN ENTERS THE LUNGS (EXCHANGE OF GASES)

EXPIRATION n EXHALATION n PROCESS OF AIR LEAVING THE LUNGS n n DIAPHRAGM AND

EXPIRATION n EXHALATION n PROCESS OF AIR LEAVING THE LUNGS n n DIAPHRAGM AND INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES RELAX AIR IS FORCED OUT CARBON DIOXIDE IS REMOVED FROM THE LUNGS

TWO TYPES OF RESPIRATIONS n n INTERNAL RESPIRATION THE EXCHANGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND

TWO TYPES OF RESPIRATIONS n n INTERNAL RESPIRATION THE EXCHANGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN BETWEEN THE CELLS AND BLOODSTREAM. CELLULAR RESPIRATION THE PROCESS WHEN CELLS USE THE OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS TO PRODUCE ENERGY, WATER, & CARBON DIOXIDE.

Respiratory System Diagram The alveoli is present after the bronchioles.

Respiratory System Diagram The alveoli is present after the bronchioles.

THE END

THE END