Respiratory system 1 SECTION 1 2 The Human

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Respiratory system 1

Respiratory system 1

SECTION 1 2

SECTION 1 2

The Human Respiratory System functions are: u u Works closely with the circulatory system,

The Human Respiratory System functions are: u u Works closely with the circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood: It filters and warms the air going into the body u It influences speech and sound production u Makes olfaction{ability to smell} possible 3

Test question n Which statement best describes the function of the respiratory passageways of

Test question n Which statement best describes the function of the respiratory passageways of a human? n they permit exchange between the external atmosphere and the circulatory system 4

respiration in humans is external and internal n External respiration: n occurs outside the

respiration in humans is external and internal n External respiration: n occurs outside the cell and involves the exchange of gases between the lungs and blood 5

n Internal respiration: n takes place when gases are exchanged between the blood and

n Internal respiration: n takes place when gases are exchanged between the blood and the body cells 6

The Human Respiratory System components are: Nasal cavity u Pharynx (Throat) u Larynx (Voice

The Human Respiratory System components are: Nasal cavity u Pharynx (Throat) u Larynx (Voice Box) u Trachea (Windpipe) u Bronchioles u Alveoli (Site of gas exchange) u 7

Oooo! Another test question n Which sequence correctly indicates the branching pattern of the

Oooo! Another test question n Which sequence correctly indicates the branching pattern of the human respiratory system? n Trachea bronchioles alveoli 8

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SECTION 2 10

SECTION 2 10

Respiratory Tract structures and functions: [these are NOT in order] 1. Nasal cavity: Air

Respiratory Tract structures and functions: [these are NOT in order] 1. Nasal cavity: Air enters nostrils, is filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors as it flows through a maze of spaces. 11

n 2. Pharynx (Throat): n Intersection where pathway for air and food cross. n

n 2. Pharynx (Throat): n Intersection where pathway for air and food cross. n Most of the time, the pathway for air is open, except when we swallow. 12

The Uvula u a flap of tissue in the back of the mouth that

The Uvula u a flap of tissue in the back of the mouth that hangs from the roof of your mouth. u 13

The Uvula closes the upper air passages so food does not come out of

The Uvula closes the upper air passages so food does not come out of your nose. u The Uvula is also the part of the body that causes snoring when air passes over it. u 14

n Epiglottis: u A leaf-like piece of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing

n Epiglottis: u A leaf-like piece of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing 15

3. Larynx (Voice Box): Contains vocal cords, which allow us to make sounds by

3. Larynx (Voice Box): Contains vocal cords, which allow us to make sounds by voluntarily tensing muscles. 16

n 4. Trachea{windpipe} Brings air into the lungs u Made up of 15 -20

n 4. Trachea{windpipe} Brings air into the lungs u Made up of 15 -20 C-shaped cartilage rings in order to maintain the shape and prevent it from closing u Branches out into 2 bronchi u 17

n 5. bronchi{singular is bronchus} Each bronchus leads into a lung and branches into

n 5. bronchi{singular is bronchus} Each bronchus leads into a lung and branches into smaller structures called bronchioles u 18

n The bronchi are the main channels for the passage of airstream towards the

n The bronchi are the main channels for the passage of airstream towards the lungs. n They also protect the lungs against germs and dirt particles 19

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n 6. bronchioles The bronchioles are smaller airways branching off from the bronchi and

n 6. bronchioles The bronchioles are smaller airways branching off from the bronchi and have the same function as the bronchi u 22

7. Alveoli/ alveolus[singular] n Air sacs where gas exchange occurs in the lungs n

7. Alveoli/ alveolus[singular] n Air sacs where gas exchange occurs in the lungs n Alveolus sit next to capillaries 23

n Alveolus gives 02 to capillary{lungs} n Capillaries gives C 02 to alveolus{blood} 24

n Alveolus gives 02 to capillary{lungs} n Capillaries gives C 02 to alveolus{blood} 24

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 • 8. Lungs n 2 spongy organs enclosed within the rib cage; surrounded

• 8. Lungs n 2 spongy organs enclosed within the rib cage; surrounded and protected by a membrane called Pleura n have no muscles; they cannot move and they cannot change size on their own 28

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 • 9. Diaphragm n a large flat muscle that lies across the chest

• 9. Diaphragm n a large flat muscle that lies across the chest cavity n it aids in the breathing process 31

Inhalation n 1. air gets sucked into the lungs n 2. the lungs inflate

Inhalation n 1. air gets sucked into the lungs n 2. the lungs inflate n 3. diaphragm moves downward n 4. the ribs move up and out 32

Exhalation n 1. air moves out n 2. the lungs deflate n 3. diaphragm

Exhalation n 1. air moves out n 2. the lungs deflate n 3. diaphragm moves up n 4. rib cage moves down and in 33

SECTION 3 34

SECTION 3 34

Respiratory system Lab n When you’re at rest, your pulse might be between 68

Respiratory system Lab n When you’re at rest, your pulse might be between 68 -75 bpm n When you’re walking, it might increase to between 90 -92 bpm n When you run, it might increase to 108 or more bpm 35

n What is the relationship between activity and pulse rate? 36

n What is the relationship between activity and pulse rate? 36

During exercise: n The heart beats faster n The blood moves faster and brings

During exercise: n The heart beats faster n The blood moves faster and brings more oxygen and glucose to all the cells of the body n The blood removes wastes like carbon dioxide and lactic acid 37

n Why do we breathe harder during exercise? n Because during exercise, the blood

n Why do we breathe harder during exercise? n Because during exercise, the blood contains an increased level of carbon dioxide 38

n The more you work-out, the more you train your body to remove waste,

n The more you work-out, the more you train your body to remove waste, this helps you to have controlled breathing and less muscle cramps n Physical activity also helps to clear your mind so you can have better thinking skills and make better judgments 39

SECTION 4 40

SECTION 4 40

Diseases of the Respiratory System 41

Diseases of the Respiratory System 41

Laryngitis n the swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx) that is

Laryngitis n the swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx) that is usually associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. 42

Asthma: n an inflammatory condition in which the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles become narrowed,

Asthma: n an inflammatory condition in which the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles become narrowed, causing breathing difficulty 43

Bronchitis: n Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi. 44

Bronchitis: n Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi. 44

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Pneumonia: n. A condition in which the air sacs are filled with mucous, pus

Pneumonia: n. A condition in which the air sacs are filled with mucous, pus and other liquids 46

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Emphysema: n. Permanent and irreversible destruction of alveoli walls, resulting in loss of lung

Emphysema: n. Permanent and irreversible destruction of alveoli walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange surface. 48

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Lung Cancer: n. Cancerous growth that invades and destroys lung tissue. 50

Lung Cancer: n. Cancerous growth that invades and destroys lung tissue. 50

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C. O. P. D. n a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe.

C. O. P. D. n a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. n It is caused by damage to the lungs over many years, usually from smoking. 52

n COPD is often a mix of two diseases: 53

n COPD is often a mix of two diseases: 53

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