# Research framework and Hypotheses development LECTURE 3 RESEARCH

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Research framework and Hypotheses development LECTURE 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RP, RQ and RO Research Problem Research Questions Research Objectives General objectives Specific objectives

Research Framework �Developed after literature review has been conducted and major variables and theory had been identified �It is also called Conceptual Framework or Theoretical Framework �The purpose of the framework is to show the research variables and to clarify relationships among the variables �With regard to research problem, the framework sets the stage for presentation of the specific research question that drives the investigation being reported

�Scholars argue that the research framework always underlies a research study �Theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked out (www. analytictech. com/mb 313/elements. htm) �Major elements should be included in the research framework include major concepts or variables and the nature of their relationships to one another. These variables were identified through literature review and from related theory to be used in the research

A theoretical framework is a conceptual model of the relationship among several factors or variables that have been identified from the literature (theory etc) as important to the problems �From theoretical framework, a testable hypothesis can be developed to examine whether theory is supported or not. �

Theoretical Framework Based on theory and previous Research you develop this research/ Theoretical framework Characteristics of trainees Training design Transfer of Training Work environment Independent variable Dependent variables

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Hypothesis development �Hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between independent and dependent variables �Hypothesis is important in casual study to determine the cause and effect of the independent and dependent variables �Hypothesis must be tested using the appropriate statistical procedure, depending on the nature of the hypothesis statement and nature of data �NOT ALL RESEARCH MUST HAVE HYPOTHESIS

Variables �Any concept that can have two or more values �Variable – phenomenon or even that is measured or manipulated in research �Something that varies among subjects or respondents �Examples of variables: gender, level of education, ethnic group, monthly income, weekly exposure to mass media, faith, thrust, belief, emotions, drug abuse, social problems, happiness, life-achievement, stress, etc �Something that can be measured and be meaningful

�Can take more that one value �The more precisely a variable is measured, the more useful the measurement is �Dependent variable (DV) – the outcome of a research study, depends on the experimental treatment �Independent variable (IV) – treatment or condition under control (studied) by the researcher

�There are many types of variables. In cause and effect term, the independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect e. g. Study habits effect grade frequent traffic jam causes stress watching TV leads to broader general knowledge �In a causal relationship between two variables, the cause must precede the effect in time �The two variables must be empirically correlated with one another

�Types of variables: * Dependent variable – effect * Independent variable – cause * Intervening variable – something else presents * Antecedent variable – prior in time * Suppressor variable – conceal relationship of two other variables * Discrete variable – take whole number only * Continuous variable – take all numbers, even decimal point

* Distorter variable – causes an apparent reversal in the relationship between two other variables * Control variable – has the potential influence on DV * Extraneous variable – has an unpredicted impact on DV * Moderator variable – variables related to IV and/or DV and hiding the true relationship between IV and DV

�Dependent variable is sensitive to changes in IV �ICDE – Independent variable as cause and Dependent variable as effect �Usually researcher identified few IVs and one DV in a research �The IVs and DVs must be operationalized or measured in order to get data.

Formulating hypothesis �“ If … then” statements �Objective extension of the original question �In a testable form using proper statistical procedures �Derived from past research �A tentative theory or supposition provisionally adopted to explain certain facts, and to guide in the investigation of others; hence, frequently called a working hypothesis

�Hypotheses are single tentative guesses--good hunches--assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiment, intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible �Two types of hypothesis: Null Hypothesis (H 0) - Statement of no difference or relation Alternative or Research Hypothesis (HA or H 1) - Statement of difference or relation

�Hypotheses posit a relationship between different factors �Relevant data are collected from the right source that will confirm or refute the hypothesis �The data should be in the suitable level of measurement �There should be enough data to conduct statistical procedures

Testing hypothesis �We test the hypothesis using the proper statistical test, not prove the hypothesis �Use inferential statistics �Separate effects of factors from the effects of chance �Assign the probability level (p) in conducting the statistical test normally at 0. 05 for social sciences and humanities, that is determined before the analysis is conducted �Also known as significant test

Working with hypothesis �The outcome of the statistical test is we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis �If the hypothesis is confirmed or in line with what is expected, can do further research �If the hypothesis is refuted, try to understand what other factors might be important and offer plausible explanation �Any outcome of the hypothesis testing is an outcome of the research, explore further

Theory �Theory is an important part of research �A theory is an explanation or model based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general principle helping to explain and predict natural phenomena �Organizes information �Helps explain past events/phenomena �Predicts new events/what will happen

Reconsidering theory �Theories can be modified based on new research findings �New variables, factors, elements, constructs may be added to modify theory �Existing variables of theory can be re-examined �This leads to new questions, thus advancement in knowledge

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