Research Design Reliability Validity Replicates research with same

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Research Design Reliability Validity • Replicates research with same results • Test what you

Research Design Reliability Validity • Replicates research with same results • Test what you set out to test • Ensure a significant sample size • Think through, design and construct carefully Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Errors that might affect reliability • Coverage error - Selection bias • Non-response error

Errors that might affect reliability • Coverage error - Selection bias • Non-response error - Failure to collect data from all respondents • Measurement error - Inaccuracies in responses due to: * Ambiguous wording of questions * Halo effect Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

What are Focus Groups? • Powell and al a group of individuals selected and

What are Focus Groups? • Powell and al a group of individuals selected and assembled by researchers to discuss and comment on, from personal experience, the topic that is the subject of research. (1996: 499) Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

What are Focus Groups? • • Form of group interviewing Lasts between 1 to

What are Focus Groups? • • Form of group interviewing Lasts between 1 to 2. 5 hours Records and observes the session Key characteristic: Group interaction Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

When are focus groups used? • • Programme Evaluation Marketing, advertising Policy making Communication

When are focus groups used? • • Programme Evaluation Marketing, advertising Policy making Communication Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Interviews • Face-to-face Q & A sessions used when in-depth understanding and sensitive data

Interviews • Face-to-face Q & A sessions used when in-depth understanding and sensitive data are needed • Can be used with other research tools to – Supplement information – Clarify the problem, limit the scope. Problem-solving –Business Help Writing: interpret unusual. Report findings Designing the Research Tool(s) – Put data into perspective Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Interviews • Cultural Differences – U. S people are very time-conscious – Distance between

Interviews • Cultural Differences – U. S people are very time-conscious – Distance between people: • US: 5 -8 ft • L. America: 3 -5 ft – Body language • “thumbs –up” • American “A-OK” gesture Writing: Problem-solving Report • Business Crossing ankle over the knees Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Interviews • Cultural Differences – “Japanese Culture” • Show respect by knowing a few

Interviews • Cultural Differences – “Japanese Culture” • Show respect by knowing a few Japanese words – “Thai Culture” • Impolite to say no – Silence • Yes or No • Need to develop cross-cultural literacy. Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Questionnaire construction: Problems • Scale Point Proliferation • The “Apple Pie” Problem • Response

Questionnaire construction: Problems • Scale Point Proliferation • The “Apple Pie” Problem • Response Category Language and Logic Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

Scale Point Proliferation • Example: 1) Never 2) Rarely 3) Occasionally 4) Fairly Often

Scale Point Proliferation • Example: 1) Never 2) Rarely 3) Occasionally 4) Fairly Often 5) Often 6) Very often 7) Almost Always 8) Always • Risk of annoying or confusing responder • Limit. Business to 4 or. Writing: 5 scale points Report Problem-solving Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

The “Apple Pie” Problem • Eg. Rating the importance of selected curriculum elements: 1)

The “Apple Pie” Problem • Eg. Rating the importance of selected curriculum elements: 1) No importance 3) Moderate importance 2) Low importance 4) High importance • Ask respondents to rank items Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)

 • Ask responders to rate positive and negative stimuli Eg. My immediate supervisor:

• Ask responders to rate positive and negative stimuli Eg. My immediate supervisor: Handles employee problems well Works with us to get the job done Embarrasses those who make mistakes Is a good listener Often gives unclear instructions 1) 1) 1) Agree Agree Business Writing: Problem-solving Report Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s) 2) 2) 2) Disagree Disagree

Response Category Language and Logic • Choice 1: 1) Agree 2) Disagree • Choice

Response Category Language and Logic • Choice 1: 1) Agree 2) Disagree • Choice 2: 1) Agree 2) Tend to Agree 3) Tend to Disagree 4) Disagree • Choice 3: 1) Strongly Agree 3) Disagree Business Writing: Problem-solving Report 2) Agree 4) Strongly Disagree Designing the Research Tool(s) Business Communication: Designing the Research Tool(s)