REPUBLIC OF TURKEY & İstanbul
MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK (1881 -1938) ATATURK FOUNDED THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY IN 1923
He made many reforms and tried Turkey to integrate the Europe and world. He reconstructed all the educational, juridical and political base of Turkey.
TURKEY IS A PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
Turkey is a secular state with no official religion Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey There about 120, 000 Christians, including an estimated 80, 000 Oriental Orthodox, 35, 000 Roman Catholics, 5, 000 Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestants, and about 26, 000 people who are Jewish
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: TURKISH
CAPITAL CITY: ANKARA THE MOST CROWDED CITY: ISTANBUL The other big cities are : İzmir Bursa Adana Konya Antalya
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: countries BULGARIA- GREECE-GEORGIAARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN-IRAQSYRIA
THE FOUR SEAS MEDITERRANEAN SEA, AEGEAN SEA, BLACK SEA THE SEA OF MARMARA
POPULATION 74, 724, 269
TURKEY ACCEPTED LATIN ALPHABET IN 1928 TURKEY ABOLISHED POLYGAMY IN 1926 TURKEY DOES NOT HAVE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
CURRENCY TURKISH LIRA
NOW TURKEY IS A CANDIDATE COUNTRY IN THE MEMBERSHIP OF EUROPEAN UNION
� Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey constituting the country's economic, cultural, and historical heart. With a population of 13. 5 million, the city is among the largest cities in the world. � Istanbul is a transcontinental city, straddling the Bosphorus—one of the world's busiest waterways—in northwestern Turkey, between the Sea of
�Its commercial and historical center lies in Europe, while a third of its population lives in Asia. �The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950 s, as migrants from across Anatolia have come to the
�Founded in around 660 BC as Byzantium, the city now known as Istanbul developed to become one of the most significant cities in history. For nearly sixteen centuries following its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 AD, it served as the capital of four empires: the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Latin Empire, and
�Seven million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2010, when it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's tenthmost-popular tourist destination.
� Istanbul has two international airports, the larger of which is Atatürk International. Atatürk, located 24 kilometers west of the city center, is the eighthbusiest airport in Europe. � Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, 45 kilometers southeast of the city center, was opened in 2001.
Bosphorus �The Bosphorus divides the city into the European and Asian sides, linked by two magnificient bridges, spanning the continents. It is a charming place, known for its fish restaurants, and the walk up to the ruined fortress overlooking the village.
� The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge is one of the two bridges in Istanbul, connecting Europe and Asia. It was opened in 1973 to celebrate the 50 th anniversary of the Republic. � The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, is the second bosphorus bridge, is a bridge in Istanbul, spanning the Bosphorus strait. It was completed in 1988.
The Princes Islands The picturesque scenery of wooded hills, charming beaches and authentic Ottoman mansions, combined with the tranquil atmosphere, make for a pleasant contrast to the city itself. Büyük Ada, or “Big Island” is the most popular with visitors. No cars are allowed but you can take a trip in a horse and carriage to visit the Monastery of St. George.
TAKSİM �Taksim Square is situated in the European part of Istanbul, is a major shopping, tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, pubs, discos, shops and hotels. It is considered the heart of modern Istanbul.
PERA �Beyoğlu is located on the European side, separated from the old city by the Golden Horn. It was known as Pera during the Middle Ages, and this name remained in common use until the early 20 th century and the establishment of the Turkish Republic.
Maiden's Tower � Maiden's Tower is a tower lying on a small islet located at 200 m off the coast of Üsküdar. The interior of the tower has been transformed into a popular café and restaurant. Private boats make trips to the tower several times a day. When you visit this tower, you will also learn the legends about the construction of the tower and its location.
Topkapi Palace � Topkapi Palace is the symbol and the center of the Ottoman Empire. Overlooking Bosphorus and the Marmara sea, stands this amazing building that was the great palace of the Ottoman Sultans. The palace is a collection of buildings arranged around a series of courtyards and has incredible collections of jewels, China, pieces of Ottoman and Islamic artwork.
Saint Sophie �Saint Sophie, built by Constantin the Great, also known as the church of the Divine Wisdom was designed to show the strength and wealth of the Roman emperors. Once it was the greatest Christian church in the world.
Sultanahmet Mosque �Sultanahmet Mosque, is known as the Blue Mosque, because of its magnificient interior decorations of blue Iznik tiles. Outside of the mosque stands the turbe or the tomb of Sultan Ahmet. The Sultan was buried here along with his wife and three sons.
Basilica Cistern �Basilica Cistern, built in the fourth century, is one of the underground cisterns that riddle the foundations of the city. It has been extensively excavated and renovated and is worth visiting and exploring while listening to the tunes of classical music.
Suleymaniye Mosque � Suleymaniye Mosque built by Mimar Sinan, the great architect, and completed in just seven years is considered to be the most beautiful of all Imperial mosques in Istanbul. It dominates the skyline of the Golden Horn. Adjoining the mosque there are schools of theology, schools of Medicine,
�Dolmabahce Palace was built as a second residence to the Sultan Abdulmecid mid 19 th century. The palace commands a nice view right on the Bosphorus and its gardens are very pretty, especially in spring and summer. � The founder of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk died in this palace on November 10, 1938.
Grand Bazaar �Grand Bazaar, the world's biggest covered historic Bazaar since 1461. It is one of the most famous spots of Istanbul, always filled with crowds who not only come to shop but to window-shop carpets, jewellery, leathers, handcrafts, home decoration items and many more.
Galata Tower �Galata Tower is located in the Galata area of Beyoglu. Galata tower is one of the best vista points in Istanbul with sweeping views of the Golden Horn
Beylerbeyi Palace �Beylerbeyi Palace is located on the Asian side of the Bosphorus slightly to the north of Dolmabahce Palace, right under the first bridge which connects Asia and Europe. Much smaller in size, the palace is a nice example of Ottoman architecture.