Representation of Europe Commonalities and national differences Paszkl

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Representation of Europe Commonalities and national differences Paszkál Kiss Euro. Ph. D on S.

Representation of Europe Commonalities and national differences Paszkál Kiss Euro. Ph. D on S. R. & C. Roma, 2005

Main points w National identity: its complexity, and its functions w Different aspects and

Main points w National identity: its complexity, and its functions w Different aspects and debates in studying national identity w Commonalities and differences the representations of the nation and of the EU

National identity: components and functions National identity is multidimensional Different functions of national identity

National identity: components and functions National identity is multidimensional Different functions of national identity Levels and aspects in social identification

National identity is a multidimensional construct (Smith) w Historic territory, homeland w Shared myths

National identity is a multidimensional construct (Smith) w Historic territory, homeland w Shared myths and common historic memories w Shared popular culture w Same rights and duties w Single economic territory with mobility of labour and exchange of goods

Some functions of national identity w Locates the community in space and time w

Some functions of national identity w Locates the community in space and time w Supports state power and institutions w Reinforces economic control over a given territory w Provides framework for socialization of people as citizens w Establishes a social bond between individuals (by providing shared values and symbols) w Provides a social framework for individual identification

Cumulative hierarchies of regional, national, EU, and international attitudes (Dekker)

Cumulative hierarchies of regional, national, EU, and international attitudes (Dekker)

Different aspects and debates in studying national identity Different disciplines about NI Debates about

Different aspects and debates in studying national identity Different disciplines about NI Debates about when is the nation Psychological theories

Different disciplines about national identity w History (emergence of nations) w Philosophy (nation as

Different disciplines about national identity w History (emergence of nations) w Philosophy (nation as an end/value) w Anthropology (cultural analysis and comparison) w Political Science (national institutions, governance, international order) w Sociology (societal structure of nations) w Psychology (national identification, national stereotypes, prejudice)

When is the nation? Primordialists Ethnosymbolists Modernists Nations are eternal Ethnic roots of nations

When is the nation? Primordialists Ethnosymbolists Modernists Nations are eternal Ethnic roots of nations Nations are only in modernity Nations are Elite redraws natural collective previously existing phenomena ethnic heritage Elite construction Psychologism: Cultural and social need political bases for (group selection) nations (role of symbols and remembering) State has primary role (idea of nation-state)

Classic and modern psychological theories about nations Nations from inside w group dynamics (centripetal

Classic and modern psychological theories about nations Nations from inside w group dynamics (centripetal and centrifugal forces) w leader and public (mass psychology) w indigenous culture studied by cultural psychology w social representations Nations in comparison w study of national character w national stereotypes w intercultural comparison w social identity theory w realistic conflict theory

Empirical research Euronat poject Survey on public opinion

Empirical research Euronat poject Survey on public opinion

Euronat project 2001 -2004 w Research on elite (media, political discourse) and everyday (questionnaire,

Euronat project 2001 -2004 w Research on elite (media, political discourse) and everyday (questionnaire, interview) representations about nation and Europe w Multiple methods used: historic analysis, media analysis, analysis of political discourse, survey, interview w Countries involved: Austria, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Greece, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain Founded by European Commission Research DG, Key Action Improving the Socio-Economic Knowledge Base (contract no. HPSE-CT 2001 -00044)

Survey on public opinon w Spring, 2002 w Representative samples from 9 countries (N=10,

Survey on public opinon w Spring, 2002 w Representative samples from 9 countries (N=10, 023) w Three questions: 1. Social distance 2. representation of the nation 3. representation of Europe

Closeness as a general attitude The question Correlations National identification patterns

Closeness as a general attitude The question Correlations National identification patterns

„…what extent you feel close to the following groups? ” w w w people

„…what extent you feel close to the following groups? ” w w w people in city, village people in region fellow nationals EU citizens fellow Europeans people in CEU w w w Arabs Turks Russians US citizens Gypsies Jews

Optimal Scaling: social distance 1, 0 region village nation , 8 , 6 HUNGARY

Optimal Scaling: social distance 1, 0 region village nation , 8 , 6 HUNGARY , 4 EU SPAIN Europe PATTERNS OF IDENTITY CLOSENESS , 2 POLAND ITALY GREECE GERMANY E. AUSTRIA -, 0 C. & E. Europe GERMANY W. CZECH REP. -, 2 USA Russians Gypsies Turks Jews Arabs -, 4 GREAT BRITAIN -, 6 -, 4 -, 2 -, 0 PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CLOSENESS , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 1, 0

National-European identification

National-European identification

Cognitive aspects of representing the nation The question Results

Cognitive aspects of representing the nation The question Results

„I feel [Hungarian] because I share with my fellow [Hungarians]…” w common culture, customs

„I feel [Hungarian] because I share with my fellow [Hungarians]…” w common culture, customs and traditions w a national economy w common language w our homeland w common ancestry w a feeling of national pride w common history, destiny w national independence and sovereignty w common political and legal system w common rights and duties w common system of social protection w national defence system w our national character w our national symbols (e. g. the flag, the national anthem)

Optimal Scaling: rep. of nation , 6 HUNGARY language culture ancestry , 4 hystory/destiny

Optimal Scaling: rep. of nation , 6 HUNGARY language culture ancestry , 4 hystory/destiny CZECH REP. , 2 GERMANY E. KIND OF NATIONAL IDENTITY symbols character pride 0, 0 AUSTRIA GERMANY W. GREECE borders sovereignty POLAND ITALY politics GREAT BRITAIN -, 2 rights/duties army SPAIN economy welfare -, 4 -, 6 -, 4 -, 2 GLOBAL FEELINGS OF NATIONALISM -, 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 1, 0

Cognitive aspects of EUrepresentation The question Results

Cognitive aspects of EUrepresentation The question Results

„I feel European because I share with fellow Europeans…” w common civilisation w w

„I feel European because I share with fellow Europeans…” w common civilisation w w w w free movement and residence in any part of the EU territory Membership in a European society with many w emerging EU defense system languages and cultures w common European homeland common ancestry w feeling of pride for being common history, destiny European EU institutions and an w Sovereignty within the EU emerging common political territory and legal system w a (future) common EU common rights and duties currency common system of social w set of EU symbols (e. g. flag, protection within the EU anthem)

Optimal Scaling: rep. of EU , 8 History/destiny Civilization , 6 ancestry hystory/destiny civilization

Optimal Scaling: rep. of EU , 8 History/destiny Civilization , 6 ancestry hystory/destiny civilization HUNGARY CZECH REP. , 4 lang. /cult. GREAT BRITAIN , 2 POLAND GERMANY E. GERMANY W. 0, 0 AUSTRIA pride politics symbols rights/duties welfare borders sovereignty army SPAIN ITALY -, 2 mov. /resid. economy KIND OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY -, 4 Pride Politics Symbols Rights/duties -, 6 -, 8 -1, 0 GREECE -1, 2 -, 6 -, 4 -, 2 -, 0 GLOBAL FEELINGS OF EUROPEANISM , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 1, 0

Conclusions Commonalities Differences

Conclusions Commonalities Differences

Conclusions I. w Attachement to EU: between (parochial) ingroups and outgroups w Dimensions for

Conclusions I. w Attachement to EU: between (parochial) ingroups and outgroups w Dimensions for differences: ethnic (emotional, cultural) – civic (legal, instrumental) levels of identification (region, nation, EU…) w National identity is not in conflict with European attachments (not only independence but also synergy)

Conclusions II. w In both the attitudinal and representational aspects there are great national

Conclusions II. w In both the attitudinal and representational aspects there are great national differences w In attitudes there is a difference in distinguishing between ingroups and outgrups w There is a difference in inclusive-exclusiveness of national identification (to EU-attachment) w In rep. of nation there is a difference in emphasizing cultural or non-cultural elements w In rep. of EU there is a difference in emphasizing cultural or non-cultural elements w Differences depend on national history and culture

Thank you for your attention! paszkal_kiss@ludens. elte. hu

Thank you for your attention! [email protected] elte. hu