Repairing and Improving Fences at School Gardens in

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Repairing and Improving Fences at School Gardens in Kamuli, Uganda Kuan-Yi Lee 1, Morgan

Repairing and Improving Fences at School Gardens in Kamuli, Uganda Kuan-Yi Lee 1, Morgan Smith 1, Mark Peranachy 2, and Agnes Kampire 2 1 Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 2 Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Introduction The school feeding program is highly benefited by the diverse crops produced in school gardens by providing grains and vegetable for school lunch. However, security issues such as grazing of livestock and theft can have a negative impact on the gardens. In summer 2018, the agroforestry bi-national team continued the project of securing school gardens by establishing living fences and repairing and improving fences at the school gardens of Nakanyonyi Primary School (NAK) and Namasagali College Staff’s Children Primary School (Kasubi). Fig 1. School garden of Namasagali College Staff’s Children Primary School Objectives Nakanyonyi Primary School (NAK) • Replace the damaged posts of barbed wire fences • Use Ficus natalensis as posts to reduce termite infestation • Weed along the living fences of Euphorbia tirucalli to reduce competition Materials and Methods Repairing and improving of the established fences at NAK: • Carefully pull out the damaged post • Dig 2 ft. deep holes at the original spot. Adjustment may be needed in order to make fences in straight lines. • Place hardwood posts into the holes. Tamp thoroughly until posts stop wobbling. • Use U-shaped nails and hammer to nail the original barbed wire tightly onto new posts. Three rows of barbed wire across every post. • Weed around the area of living fences of Euphorbia tirucalli to reduce competition from weeds. Repairing and improving of the established fences at Kasubi: • Weed around living fences to enable digging at gaps. • Dig 3 to 6 in. deep trenches at gaps of the established living fences of Euphorbia tirucalli. • Transplant cuttings of Euphorbia tirucalli in trenches and cover the bottom of cuttings with loose soil. • Dig 2 ft. deep holes at locations where were intruded frequently. • Place hardwood posts into holes and tamp thoroughly until stop wobbling. • Use U-shaped nails and hammer to nail two to three rows of barbed wire on the posts. • Obtain Vachellia tortilis large branches and place them at locations where neither living or barbed wire fences could be established. Results Nakanyonyi Primary School • 80 damaged wooden posts replaced. • 1000 feet of three-rowed barbed wire fences repaired. • Weeds around 800 feet of living fences of Euphorbia tirucalli cleared out. Namasagali College Staff’s Children Primary School • Transplanted approximately 200 Euphorbia tirucalli cuttings to fill gaps of living fences. • Added 1 post near the entrance of school garden where most intruders broke into the garden. • 100 feet of the school garden border fenced by Vachellia tortilis. Material Used Namasagali College Staff’s Children Primary School (Kasubi) • Fill gaps of living fences of Euphorbia tirucalli • Reinforce fences at locations that were often trespassed upon by intruders • Place Vachellia tortilis at locations where neither living nor barbed wire fences could be established Fig. 5. Weeds around Euphorbia tirucalli were cleared out, which reduces competition and allows the living fence to develop better in the future. Replacing Wooden Posts Conclusions The crops at school gardens and school properties are better protected by repaired fences which will continue to support the school feeding program. The agroforestry binational team worked on securing crop yield which will maintain crop production to improve health and nutrition in rural area in Uganda. Recommendations Fig 2. The bi-national agroforestry team put a new wooden post into the ground. Since the post is usually heavy and needs to be tamped thoroughly, multiple people are required to work together when replacing the posts. Fig 3. A Service-learner from Makerere University, Mark Peranachy, carries a wooden post. A typical wooden post is usually 4 to 5 ft. tall. 2 ft. of the post is buried underground, and 3 ft. of the post serves as support for the barbed wires. Fig 4. The thorny stem of Vachellia tortilis 2 serves as good fences at places where no barbed wire or living fences can be established. The plant is native to Uganda and is highly drought resistant. 1. Routine management of existing living fences 2. Replace damaged posts with native species that can propagate from cuttings, such as Ficus natalensis, which is less likely to be destroyed be termites and will provide firewood in the future. 3. Prepare seedlings of native plants that can work as living fences early in the summer service-learning program so that the seedlings can be planted by the end of the program. 1. 2. Literature Cited Agroforestry. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http: //www. fao. org/sustainable-forestmanagement/toolbox/modules/agroforestry/basic-knowledge/en/. Accessed 25 September 2018. Mukaro, Edeth. Vachellia tortilis – Umbrella thorn – Haal-en-steek. Sun Trees. Date published 4 May 2016. http: //suntrees. co. za/vachellia-tortilis-umbrella-thorn-haal-en-steek/. Accessed 25 September 2018. Acknowledgements: List organizations College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Iowa State University – Uganda Program and donors, including: Jerry and Karen Kolschowsky and the Kolschowsky Family and Foundation; Rose Boughton; Tom and Terri Miller