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Renewable energy potential in Thailand Coal Trans 22 January 2005 Chris Greacen, Ph. D. Palang Thai www. palangthai. org
Renewables account for very little of Thailands’ installed generating capacity Big hydro 0. 6% ����� 0. 6% grid-connected renewables lignite Fuel oil Natural gas TOTAL: 26, 000 MW Source: EGAT (2003). Power Development Plan
Estimate of installed grid-connected renewables in Thailand (2004) Resource Capacity (MW) Biogas 7 Biomass 215 (to grid) (not including 419 MW self-gen) Small & micro-hydro 139 Solar PV 1. 2 Wind 0. 7 TOTAL 363 Source: 2003 Thai government figures + updates for biogas & PV based on recent installations
Estimated renewable energy potential in Thailand Resource Biomass (includes biogas) Solar PV Wind Micro- & Mini- hydro Total Technical potential (MW) 7, 000 >5, 000 1, 600 700 >14, 000 Commerical Potential (MW) >4, 300 ? ? >200 >4, 500 Year 2011 Government targets (MW) 1140 250 100 350 1840 Source: Technical potential and Targets from Thai Ministry of Energy. (2003). “Energy Strategy for Competitiveness” http: //www. eppo. go. th/admin/moe-workshop 1/index. html. Commercial potential from Black & Veatch 2000 and NEPO/DANCED 1998 as well as interviews with power plant managers.
Breakdown of economically viable biomass resource Biomass resource Economic potential (MW) Bagasse 1900 Biogas (cassava, pig, food waste) 1185 Wood residues 950 Rice husk 100 Corncob 54 Distillery slop 49 Coconut 43 Palm oil residues 43 TOTAL 4, 324 Source: Black and Veatch (2000). Final Report: Thailand Biomass-Based Power Generation and Cogeneration Within Small Rural Industries. Bangkok, NEPO; NEPO/DANCED (1998). Investigation of Pricing Incentive in a Renewable Energy Strategy -- Main report. Bangkok. Bagasse figure from interview with Sirisak Tatong, power plant manager at Mitr Phol sugar factory. Biogas from interviews with biogas developers
Technology is available… • Steam turbines for direct combustion of biomass – – Rice husk, wood chip, palm husk, bagasse, coconut husk, etc. Size >1 MW Capital cost $1200/k. W Commercially available in Thailand • Bio-digestors & engines for biogas – Pig manure, cassava, palm oil, municipal wastes, distillery slop – Size > 30 k. W – Problems with SO 2 resolvable • Gasifiers – – Rice husk, wood chip Size > 50 k. W. Problems with tar in some fuels Commercially available for wood chip
Reduces air and water pollution Biogas from Pig Farms Produces fertilizer Produces electricity
Biogas from Pig Farms
Community microhydro • Mae Kam Pong village, Chiang Mai • 40 k. W • Community cooperative • Expected gross revenues: 30, 000 baht/month
40 k. W micro-hydro generator at Mae Kam Pong
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity • Earns high market returns • Developer estimates 300 MW from waste water + 800 MW from wet cake
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas • 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators
DSM + Cogeneration potential even bigger • DSM – 2000 to 3000 MW: “Achievable and cost effective DSM” in 1991 (Utility study) • IIEC (International Institute for Energy Conservation). 1991. Demand Side Management for Thailand’s Electric Power System: Five-Year Master Plan. Submitted to Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority and Provincial Electricity Authority, Bangkok, Thailand. November. • Cogeneration – 8610 MW cogen installed as of 2001 • http: //www. jxj. com/magsandj/cospp/2002_05/cogen_southeast_asia. html – Since 1998, utilities accepting no new cogen. At least 3, 000 MW of additional cogen had applied and have not been accepted.
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