- Slides: 31
Renaissance England 1485 AD -1660 AD
Renaissance Spirit n Medieval Europeans viewed the world as a place to prepare for life after death. n Renaissance means “rebirth” or “revival” n Renaissance Europeans were more worldly, delighting in art and literature, in the beauty of nature, in human impulses and in a new sense of mastery over the world.
Renaissance Spirit n Renaissance emphasized the individual and the importance of developing human potential. n The idea “Renaissance Man” was a person who cultivated his innate capabilities to the fullest.
Renaissance Spirit n Perceiving himself as the center of his own universe, he synthesized the emotional, rational, social, and spiritual forces in his life into a harmonious balance. n The natural result of secularism and individualism was a general revolt against authority.
Renaissance Spirit n Technological advances in printing led to more access to literature, which created a more educated middle class. n Shipbuilding and the invention of navigational devices spurred trade and made possible geographical expansion.
The Tudor Monarchs n In 1485, the Medieval Period ended when the War of the Roses was settled and King Henry VII became the first Tudor Monarch. n Most notably, during King Henry’s reign funded the beginnings of the powerful fleet of merchant ships and exploratory expeditions penetrated North America and established the English claim to the continent.
The Tudor Monarchs n King Henry VIII was a true Renaissance prince, athletic, charming, educated, and musical. n His reign is responsible for the establishment of the Anglican Church. n When he could not receive an annulment from the Church in Rome, he founded a new church and named himself Supreme Head of the English Church.
The Tudor Monarchs n In earlier times Henry VIII’s defiance of the Catholic Church would have created domestic problems. n However, by this point in history, the average Englishman felt stronger loyalty to the king and country than to the institution of the church.
The Tudor Monarchs n Given these factors, Parliament in 1534 willingly passed the Act of Supremacy, which established a national church with the king as it head. n The new Church of England (Anglican Church) was essentially the Roman Catholic Church without ties to Rome.
The Tudor Monarchs n After Henry VIII died, his son, King Edward VI reigned 6 years and spread Protestantism throughout England. n Edward VI died leaving the throne to his older sister, Mary, who became known as “Bloody Mary” for the forceful return of Catholicism to England.
Queen Elizabeth I n After a 5 year reign Mary died, leaving the throne to her younger sister, Elizabeth.
Politics of the Elizabethan Era n Elizabeth, the unwanted daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, ascended the throne in 1558 and ruled triumphantly for almost half a century. n Her reign was a glorious period in English history, a time of unprecedented prosperity, artistic achievement, and international prestige.
Politics of the Elizabethan Era n A consummate politician, exercising absolute authority while remaining sensitive to public opinion and respectful of the forms of Parliamentary government. n Contradictory character: vain and headstrong v. practical and disciplined, loved pomp and pageantry v. frugal and balanced the national budget.
Elizabeth Visual http: //www. imdb. com/video/screenplay/vi 4037 280025/
Politics of the Elizabethan Era n In religion: Elizabeth took a middle-of -the-road position. She reinstated the church of England but ended all religious persecution. n In foreign policy: Elizabeth managed to maintain some semblance of peace throughout most of her reign, using the possibility of her marriage for leverage.
Politics of the Elizabethan Era n At sea: Elizabeth privately funded pirates to prey on the dominate Spanish Armada while publicly apologizing to Spain for their unlawful acts. n After 25 years of pirate attacks, the king of Spain dispatched the entire Armada against the English navy, only to be defeated by the smaller, more maneuverable English ships.
Spanish Armada http: //www. imdb. com/video/screenplay/vi 3366 191385/ Speech at Tilbury http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. SV 7 z. Sjbrts
Politics of the Elizabethan Era n After the defeat of the Spanish Armada, Elizabeth was the undisputed ruler of the strongest nation in Europe. n England was the model of social order. n Religious controversies, political divisiveness, and economic disruptions were suppressed or ignored in the interests of national unity and out of respect for the beloved queen.
Political Struggles n Elizabeth’s death in 1603 marked the end of the powerful Tudor monarchy and the beginning of the weaker Stuart dynasty. n The Stuart Kings met with rising hostility among the English people and within the Puritan dominated House of Commons.
Political Struggles n First Conflict: King James demanded that the Puritans and other religious groups practice the rituals of the Church of England. n Second Conflict: This centered around the Stuart kings’ incessant need for money and their need for Parliament approval for taxation.
Comin’ to America n The religious, political, and economic unrest of this period stimulated emigration to British North America, particularly among nonconforming worshippers and government critics. n The Stuart years were England’s first years of major colonial expansion.
Puritan Revolution n Due to religious dissent, Puritans who remained in England eventually rejected the authority of the king and prepared for an ideological civil war. n In 1645, the Puritan army, under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, defeated the king’s army and Cromwell established himself as absolute governor of England, enforcing Puritan beliefs.
Puritan Non-Revolution n The Cromwellian government proved no more effective than the Stuart dynasty. n By 1660 almost everyone wanted to return to the old constitutional rule, with a king or queen, a House of Lords, and a House of Commons. n The restoration of the monarchy in 1660 marks the official end of the Renaissance Period in English history.
Renaissance Literature n The literature of the Renaissance Period can be divided into two distinctly different categories: n The Elizabethan Age Literature n 17 th Century Prose and Poetry
Elizabethan Age Literature n For the first time in history, readers and listeners, poets and playwrights all delighted in the vigor and beauty of the English language. n London was the center of literary activity, especially the glittering Elizabethan court, where the focus was on poetic creativity.
Elizabethan Age Literature n Members of the court vied with one another to see who could create the most highly polished, technically perfect poems, particularly the sonnet. n The lyrics of these sonnets often expressed passionate desire for a beautiful, intriguing, and elusive woman.
Elizabethan Age Literature n Elizabethan poets created ingenious metaphors, elaborate allegories, and complex analogies. n The poetry of this period appeals to the intellect as well as to the emotions, blending the classical reverence for truth the with renaissance appreciation for beauty.
th 17 Century Prose & Poetry n The literature of the 17 th century begins to reflect a certain dissatisfaction with the extravagance, romance, and enthusiasm of the Elizabethan Age. n However, even among these writers there was a great deal of variance in their approach to literature.
th 17 Century Prose & Poetry n Cavalier Poetry: light hearted, charming, witty, and sometimes cynical. Deals with themes of love, war, chivalry, and loyalty to the throne. n Metaphysical Poetry: attempts to encompass the vastness of the universe and to express and awareness of life’s complexities and contradictions.
th 17 Century Prose & Poetry n Essays: significant in the development of English prose are the essays written by Sir Francis Bacon. In a compact, clear style, Bacon explores the controversial new views of the world. n King James Bible: The first translation to make extensive use of Greek and Hebrew texts, represents the combined efforts of 50 leading Biblical scholars, both Anglican and Puritan.
th 17 Century Prose & Poetry n John Milton: The last of the great English Renaissance men and the only major puritan writer of the 17 th century. His concerns were more complex, grandiose, passionate, devotional, and universal than almost any other English writer. n In his masterpiece, Paradise Lost, he demonstrates the triumph of human over nature that characterizes the spirit of the English Renaissance.