- Slides: 99
REMEMBERING 2 O 10’S VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
2010 THE YEAR OF “RECORD AND NEAR-RECORD” NATURAL DISASTERS
VOLCANOES are awesome manifestations of heat flowing as a result of hot spots (e. g. , Hawaii and Iceland) and movement along faults located in subduction zones (e. g. , the Pacific Rim).
PLANET EARTH HAS 1, 500 “VOLCANO LABORATORIES” EACH VOLCANO HAS A UNIQUE ERUPTION HISTORY, WHICH CONTAINS VALUABLE LESSONS ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1, 500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES
2010’S NOTABLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • ICELAND March 20 and April 14, 2010 • INDONESIA October 25 -27 – November 24, 2010
IMPACTED NATIONS • Iceland (Europe) • Indonesia
SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 • The volcanic ash cloud over Europe from Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano paralyzed air travel in Europe for weeks and cost the industry over $2 B. • The eruption of Mount Merapi immediately after a M 7. 7 earthquake and a tsunami caused loss of life and a triple disaster in Indonesia.
INDONESIA A LAND OF ISLANDS AND SUBDUCTION ZONE VOLCANOES
INDONESIA HAS MORE THAN 17, 000 ISLANDS
TECTONICS OF INDONESIA REGION • The Australian and Eurasian plates meet in Indonesia, creating a tectonic setting favorable for generating earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.
Indonesia is home to 129 active volcanoes, with the two most active ones — Mount Kelut and Mount Merapi — located on the island of Java, which also contains the Indonesian capital of Jakarta, roughly 500 km (300 mi) northwest of them.
SUBDUCTION ZONE VOLCANOES
MOUNT MERAPI, INDONESIA, IS A SUBDUCTION ZONE VOLCANO • Mount Merapi has a history of starting full scale eruptions with a pyroclastic cloud and flow.
VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • LAVA FLOWS • LAHARS • EARTHQUAKES (related to movement of lava) • “VOLCANIC WINTER”
VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • • VERTICAL PLUME ASH AND TEPHRA LATERAL BLAST PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
ICELAND A LAND OF FIRE (HOT SPOT VOLCANOES) AND ICE
Unlike the subduction zone volcanoes along the Pacific Rim where the slow rise of magma gives early seismic warnings that an eruption is imminent, Iceland's hot spot volcanoes tend to erupt under ice sheets with little warning.
Iceland lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the highly volatile divergent boundary between the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates that is marked by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
ICELAND THE MID ATLANTIC RIDGE
CAUSES OF RISK LATERAL BLAST PYROCLASTIC FLOWS FLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH ERUPTIONS CASE HISTORIES LAVA FLOWS LAHARS TOXIC GASES
RISK ASSESSMENT • HAZARD MAPS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION DATA BASES AND INFORMATION ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK VOLCANO DISASTER RISK REDUCTION COMMUNITY POLICY OPTIONS HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS • PREVENTION/MITIGATION • PREPAREDNESS • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR VOLCANOES • PURPOSE • LAND-USE CONTROL • EVACUATION • TECHNIQUE • MAPS: LAVA AND/OR LAHAR FLOW PATHS • COMMUNITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
The Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyaplayurkul) volcano in Southern Iceland, part of the volcanic process that originally formed Iceland, erupted a few minutes before midnight on Saturday, March 20 th
The Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is Located in Southern Iceland
ERUPTION HISTORY Eyjafjallajökull last erupted in 1821 in what was called a "lazy" eruption, which lasted almost two years.
The Eyjafjallajökull Volcano
Eyjafjallajökull: UNDER A GLACIER; MARCH 27, 2010
AN 8 -KM PLUME OF STEAM: APRIL 14, 2010
EYJAFJALLAJOEKULL: VOLCANO UNDER A GLACIER
HEAVY FLOODING: APRIL 14, 2010
HEAVY FLOODING LOCALLY: APRIL 14, 2010
HEAVY FLOODING WASHES OUT ROAD: APRIL 14, 2010
(DARK) ASH CLOUD OVER ICELAND: APRIL 15, 2010
A dark and spectacular volcanic cloud spread over Britain and toward continental Europe on Thursday, April 15, forcing airlines to cancel thousands of flights as it drifted at high altitude south and east from the continuing eruption in Iceland.
ASH CLOUD FROM APRIL 14 ERUPTION
ICELAND’S AIR TRAFFIC DISRUPTED BY THE ASH
EUROPEAN AIR TRAFFIC DISRUPTED: APRIL 15, 2010
The ash cloud, made up of minute particles of silicate that can severely damage jet engines, left airplanes stranded on the tarmac at some of the world’s busiest airports.
APRIL 19: Eyjafjallajökull is still erupting.
MAP OF AIRPORTS CANCELLING FLIGHTS: APRIL 15, 2010
A week of airspace closures caused by the ash threat to planes created the worst breakdown in civil aviation in Europe since World War II, which caused more than 100, 000 flights to be canceled and airlines to lose over $2 billion.
The Eyjafjallajökull Volcano: Lava and Lightning
“DIRTY THUNDERSTORM” APRIL 17, 2010
THE ERUPTION CONTINUES: ICELAND; APRIL 17, 2010
Steam and Ash Cloud: April 17
Glacier and the Ash Cloud: April 18
Car Traveling Through Ash: April 18
Clearing Ash from Roof: April 18, 2010
Horses and the Ash Cloud: April 18
Plane (upper left) and Ash Cloud Over Iceland: April 18
A NEW THREAT: Scientists said the 800 -meter fissure caused by the eruption was growing and heading towards the Myrdalsjokall glacier, which sits atop Iceland’s powerful Katla volcano
An eruption at the Katla volcano would likely be very disastrous for Iceland as well as for other nations.
ERUPTION OF MOUNT MERAPI EXACERBATED THE EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI DISASTER THAT OCCURRED ON OCTOER 25, 2010 October 25 -27 – November 24, 2010
A M 7. 7 EARTHQUAKE, A 3 M-TSUNAMIWAVE RUN UP, AND A LONG ERUPTION OF MOUNT MERAPI CAUSED LOSSES IN THE TENS OF MILLIONS, DISPLACED OVER 340, 000, KILLING NEARLY 1, 000 , AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTING THE HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THOUSANDS,
Sandwiched between two active earthquake belts, the Pacific “Ring of fire, ” and the Alpide Belt, Indonesia experiences some of the most powerful earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on Earth.
KNOWING THE ERUPTION HISTORY OF A VOLCANO IS A VITAL PART OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF INTELLIGENT EVACUATION.
Monday and Tuesday: Oct 25 -26 Indonesia endured two days of environmental extremes after a powerful earthquake, a tsunami, and a volcanic eruption struck the Java region of the Indonesian archipelago.
CASUALTIES: 538 ON OCT 26, BUT TOLL CONTINUED TO RISE The earthquake and tsunami run up left at least 500 dead, and the initial volcanic eruption left 38 dead, BUT, health impacts associated with Mount Merapi’s continuing eruption may have long-term impacts.
MOUNT MERAPI ERUPTED THREE TIMES: OCT 26, 2010
THE RESPONSE TO A HUGE HUMANITARIAN NEED BEGINS The Indonesian government started by constructing 4000 shelter homes, while Aid workers were scrambling to provide tents, food, clothing, and medicine to evacuees while awaiting international assistance.
SEARCH AND RESCUE AFTER MERAPI’S ERUPTION
MERAPI’S ERUPTION CONTINUES: NOV 1
70, 000 EVACUATED AS ERUPTION CONTINUES: NOV 2
FLAWS IN EVACUATION FACILITIES EXPOSED : NOV 2 • Tens of thousands of evacuees, who were anxious to go home to check on livestock and homes, found the camps cramped and unsanitary, but they were unable to go because there was no lull or clear end in Merapi’s eruption cycle.
A LARGE ERUPTION: NOV 3
In consideration of the violence of the eruption on November 3 rd, the government widened the radius of the evacuation zone around Merapi from 5 to 10 km, and eventually to 12 km.
Aid workers say the conditions in the evacuee camps are very poor, with some shelters having as few as five lavatories for every thousand residents.
VERY VIOLENT ERUPTION ON NOV 5 • Just before midnight, Merapi erupted with a 10 km ash plume that affected locations 250 km away and a pyroclastic cloud of ash and rock fragments that raced down the slopes at speeds of up to 100 km per hour. •
ERUPTIONS CONTINUES : NOV 6
FLIGHTS TO JAKARTA CANCELED BECAUSE OF THE ASH CLOUDS.
Deaths continued to climb daily from the continuing eruption of Mount Merapi: 38 (Oct 26) to 56 to 118 to 138 to 156 (Nov 8) to 191(Nov 10).
NOV. 6 TH : A massive aid operation is underway to provide humanitarian assistance to some 200, 000 people who fled the most violent eruptions in 100 years, especially on Thursday night (Nov 4 th), which killed over 70 people.
Local government, the security forces, the Indonesian Red Cross, NGOs and hundreds of volunteers are distributing food, water and organizing basic medical care.
MERAPI’S ERUPTIONS CONTINUE : NOV 10
USA SENDS THREE VOLCANO EXPERTS WITH EXPERIENCE IN THE MAY 1980 ERUPTION OF MOUNT ST HELENS TO ASSIST INDONESIAN EXPERTS IN THEIR ASSESSMENTS OF MERAPI.
Merapi’s eruptions, which began on Oct. 26, passed the 120 -hour mark on Nov. 11, eclipsing its old record set in 1872.
NEW HEALTH CARE PROBLEMS: HIGH SULFUR DIOXIDE : NOV 11
NOV 11: According to the National Disaster Management Agency, 194 deaths, 598 people are hospitalized, and 343, 909 people have been evacuated to the safety zone, 12. 4 miles (20 km) away from Merapi.
NEW THREAT-FLASH FLOODS: Volcanic debris has clogged many of the rivers (e. g. , Code River) that begin on Merapi's slopes, and officials are now worried that cold lava could overwhelm these rivers and create conditions for flash floods.
ASH-COVERED SCHOOL: NOV 14
NOV 15 th Evacuees begin returning home to take care of livestock and to assess vitality of resuming their former livelihoods
AS OF NOV 16 th Merapi had emitted more than 140 million cubic meters of materials, higher than the 100 million cubic meters emitted in 1872 and the 14 million cubic meters emitted in 2006.
ASH-COVERED TERRAIN: NOV 18
The month-long eruptions of Mount Merapi also damaged 867 hectares of forested land on the volcano`s slopes in Sleman District, Yogyakarta, with material losses estimated at Rp 33 billion.
Deaths from the ongoing eruption of Mount Merapi continued to climb daily, going from: 38 (Oct 26) to 56 to 118 to 138 to 156 (Nov 8) to 190 (Nov 10) to 250 (Nov 14) to 275 (Nov 18) to 324 (Nov 25)
IMPATIENT EVACUEES BEGIN RETURNING HOME: NOV 18
NOV 18 th The Government spent an estimated $10 million to buy cattle as a means of keeping the farmers from returning home too soon to face almost certain health-care problems and death.
NOV 19 th The Government declared that it will end the emergency response period for the Mount Merapi volcanic eruption disaster on November 24 th
NOV 20 th Indonesia's Yogyakarta airport, which had been closed for about two weeks by the eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano, reopened for operations on Saturday, November 20.
After the end of the emergency response period, the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) will begin implementing the reconstruction and rehabilitation programs for Mount Merapi victims
The BNPB has at its disposal Rp 397 billion to help disaster victims, with 80 percent allocated to meet the victims` physical needs and 20 percent allocated for operational expenses. .
"Houses that have been damaged or destroyed will be rebuilt; people who have lost cattle will be financially compensated, and food will be provided for those who lost crops.
But there also was more than Rp 3 trillion in stand-by funds to respond to the needs of reconstruction and rehabilitation
NOVEMBER 26 -28: Indonesia’s Mount Bromo, also located on Java, began to erupt on Friday, eventually emitting ash clouds on Sunday that reached a height of up to 700 meters (2, 300 feet). on Sunday.
POTENTIAL EVACUEES WATCH AS MOUNT BROMO ERUPTS: NOV 28
Those living in the vicinity of Mount Bromo remained on high alert as the East Java administration closed the airport and began to prepare nearby residents for the possibility of an urgent evacuation.
The European Commission decided to provide Euro 1. 5 million (US$ 2. 1 million) through its Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) for assistance to the survivors of the tsunami in western Sumatra and to those displaced by the volcano.