- Slides: 49
Religion Universalized and Ethnic Religion
Religion • A set of beliefs – an explanation of the origins and purpose of humans and their role on earth – existence of a higher power, spirits or god – Which involves rituals, festivals, rites of passage and space (religious landscapes)
Classification of Religion • Monotheistic- the belief in one god. • Polytheistic- the belief in multiple gods • Ethnic Religions-born into a faith, and little or no effort put forth to convert ‘outsiders’ • Universalizing Religions- actively try to expand religion through conversion. • Proselytic faith- another name for universalizing religion
Alternatives to religion • Atheists- those who do not believe in any god or god like figures • Secularist- separation of religion from all other aspects like government and governmental functions. Believes there is no god, or if there is, doesn’t care. • Jainism- religion based on nonmaterialism but ultimately is a form of atheism.
Religious Divisions • Branch: A large and fundamental division within a religion. • Denomination: A division within a branch of a religion. • Sect: A relatively small denominational group that has broken away from an established church.
Top 5 • There are five primary religions: – Buddhism and Hinduism (originating in India) – Christianity, Islam and Judaism (originating in the Middle East)
Universalizing Religions • • The three main U. R are: Christianity Buddhism Islam • Traced to actions and teaching of a man • Diffused from specific hearths by followers / missionaries
Christianity • 2 Billion followers • Most widely spread religion • Practiced namely in North and South Americas, Europe, Australia as well as some countries is Asia and Africa. • Three Branches: Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox
Foundational Beliefs Centered around the life of Jesus Christ Lived, died and was resurrected. He died for the sins of people. Some believe you can only be saved through the belief in him where others believe that good work and repentance will save you. • Main text-Bible, two parts, Old Testament and New Testament. • Trinity- God, the Son and the Holy Spirit • •
Structure • Church leadership – Varies by denomination – Catholic: Pope, Priest, cardinals, bishops – Protestant: Pastor or Minister – Orthodox: Patriarch
Distribution and Diffusion • Conversion is the cornerstone of Christianity. • Relocation diffusion- colonization and missionaries. • Contagious diffusion- people in the town or village would practice it. • Hierarchal diffusion- imperialism and empires
Branches of Christianity • Roman Catholics- 52% (Southwest and East Europe) • Protestants-21% (Northwest Europe) • Eastern Orthodox 10% (East and Southeast Europe) • Christian Religious Branch followers vary sharply regionally. (your location has a lot to do with your religion)
Islam • 1. 3 Billion followers • Thought to be mostly practiced in the Middle East (Northern Africa to Central Asia) • Half however live in parts of Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. • Islam in Arabic means “submission to the will of God” • Believe in what are referred to as the “Five Pillars of Faith” • France has largest Islam population outside of “Islamic countries”.
Foundational Beliefs • Five Pillars of Islam – There is only one God, Allah (Shahadah) – Pray five times a day facing Mecca (Salah) – Taxes must be paid directly to poor or needy, or mosque (Zakat) – Fast during Ramadan (Sawm) – Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
Structure • The leader of the mosque is an imam. • Imam leads prayer and is in charge of the individual mosque.
Distribution and Diffusion • Began in present day Saudi Arabia and extended along the trade routes reaching S. E Asia in the Middle Ages. • Northern Africa is also Islamic • Expansion occurred due to relocation and hierarchical diffusion. • Expansion into S. E Asia and East Africa was due to trade relationships (relocation and contagious)
Denominations • Two fundamental branches: – Shiites or Shiahs (15%) – Sunni (85%) – Shiites are more conservative, literal interpretation of Koran. Live in Iraq and Iran – Sunnis, more liberal, take liberty with interpretation of the Koran as it applies to todays world. Occupy most of the other Islamic regions
Buddhism 400 Million followers Found in China and Southeast Asia Focus on elimination of unwanted desires through meditation. Its foundation is based on a concept known as the “Four Noble Truths” • Split into branches---because of a disagreement in the interpretation of their leader (Siddhartha Gautama) • The three branches are Mahayana, Theravada and Tantrayana. • The true number of followers can be difficult to count because only monks participate in a formalized religious Buddhist institutions and Eastern Buddhists can chose to participate in more than one religion where Christianity and Islam are exclusive to one. • •
Ethnic Religions • • • Hinduism Confucianism Daoism (Taoism) Shintoism Judaism
Hinduism • Worlds 3 rd largest religion whose followers are clustered in India and Nepal. (97%) • You can practice the religion but cannot be a ‘hindu’ unless you are born to Hindu parents • Believe in an individuals interpretation of the “right way to worship” (no rules in worship) • Believe in “Paths” for reaching God. • You are the only one responsible for your actions. • Does not have a central authority or a single guiding book. • Many deities ex: god Brahma- created universe. Vishnu—loving god preserver of earth, Siva—protective and destructive god. • Almost no diffusion with the exception of possible relocation diffusion. • Reincarnation
• Origin and Diffusion ã 2000 BCE – Abraham formed covenant with God as patriarch of Israelites ã Moses led people out of Egypt ãDiaspora: In 70 A. D. , Romans forced Jews to disperse throughout the world. ã Ghetto: During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews.
• Basic Precepts – Belief in One God – Torah - original 5 chapters of Christian Bible – Coming of the Messiah still to come – Atonement accomplished by sacrifices, penitence & good deeds – Differing opinions on afterlife – Lead by a rabbi on Saturdays-holy day
Judaism 14 Million followers Majority reside in Israel (5 million) Believe in one God. Consider themselves the “chosen people” to follow God’s commandments strictly. • Demoninations include- orthodox, Haredi (ultra-orthodox) • •
Ethnic Asian Religions Taoism – The Path or Way – Founder: Lao Tze – 500 BCE – 20 million followers, mainly in China – Sacred Text: Tao Te Ching – philosophy of harmony & balance: Tao – After life: change from being to non-being
Ethnic Asian Religions • Confucianism – 6 -5 th century BCE – moral code taught by Confucius • Humanity and striving for perfection – 5 -6 million adherents, most refer to themselves as more than one faith • Most influential in China
Ethnic Asian Religions Shintoism – Japanese traditional religion – No founder or origin known – 3 -4 million followers – Beliefs • Worship and offerings to kami at shrines and at home • Simple and harmonious life with nature and people • Many practices tied with Buddhism
Ethnic Asian Religions Jainism – 550 BCE – Founder: Mahavira – Indian traditional religion – 4 million followers – Basic Principles: • Reincarnation to attain perfection and liberation • Non-violence-Cause no harm to any being
Ethnic: African Animism (Shamanism) - the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman. • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers and folk cultures. • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman
Other Universalizing • Sikhism – Formed as a rejection to the Indian caste system. – All people are created equal. – Located in the Punjab region of India – 24 million followers – Men wear turbans
Other Universalizing Religions • Baha’i – Practiced in many parts of Asia and Africa – Similar to Sikh faith – No class distinction – Extends to race and religion
Mormonism Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith founder Continued by Brigham Young Book of Mormon- text Polygamy- practiced by founder, not accepted today. • Considered to be Christian faith but distinct differences between them • • •