Religion and Intercultural Communication Muslims Blue Roman Catholics

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Religion and Intercultural Communication

Religion and Intercultural Communication

Muslims - Blue Roman Catholics - Yellow Protestants - Orange Christians from various churches

Muslims - Blue Roman Catholics - Yellow Protestants - Orange Christians from various churches - Red Indigenous religions - Purple Orthodox Christians - Dark red Mormons - Light blue This map is taken from Encyclopedia Britannica (2003).

Religious Influences on Communication Sikhism Buddhism Islam Hinduism Judaism Confucianism Christianity

Religious Influences on Communication Sikhism Buddhism Islam Hinduism Judaism Confucianism Christianity

Sikhism • Disciples of Guru Nanak (1469 -1539) and his nine successors who lived

Sikhism • Disciples of Guru Nanak (1469 -1539) and his nine successors who lived after him in the area currently defined as north-west India and Pakistan.

Guru Nanak Guru Gobind named the Guru Granth Sahib his successor Guru Arjan laid

Guru Nanak Guru Gobind named the Guru Granth Sahib his successor Guru Arjan laid the foundations of the Golden Temple Jesus through Sikh Eyes

The Belief of Sikhism There is one creator God, whom Sikhs called Satnam (“true

The Belief of Sikhism There is one creator God, whom Sikhs called Satnam (“true name”). The idea of the Guru is central: God as guru; religious leaders as gurus; scripture as guru; community as guru. Sikhs share with Hinduism a belief in karma, reincarnation and ultimate unreality of the world. Dedicated (khalsa) Sikhs are distinguished by their uncut hair, comb, metal bangle, knee-length pants and small dagger. They are opposed to parts of the caste system and their temples have communal kitchens where people are encouraged to eat together. They encourage tolerance of other religious traditions, which Sikh temples symbolise by having four doors facing each point of the compass inviting anyone to enter. They abstain from alcohol and tobacco. Sikhism is not a missionary religion, but people can convert.

The God of grace Sikh spirituality is centred round this need to understand experience

The God of grace Sikh spirituality is centred round this need to understand experience God, and eventually become one with God. Truth is the highest of all virtues, but higher still is truthful living.

Getting close to God When a Sikh wants to see God, they look both

Getting close to God When a Sikh wants to see God, they look both at the created world and into their own heart and soul. Their aim is to see the divine order that God has given to everything, and through it to understand the nature of God. Most human beings can’t see the true reality of God because they are blinded by their own self-centred pride (Sikhs call it haumain) and concern for physical things.

God inside us Sikhs believe that God is inside every person, no matter how

God inside us Sikhs believe that God is inside every person, no matter how wicked they appear, and so everyone is capable of change. Just as fragrance is in the flower, and reflection is in the mirror, in just the same way, God is within you.

Three Duties The three duties that a Sikh must carry out can be summed

Three Duties The three duties that a Sikh must carry out can be summed up in three words; Pray, Work, Give. Nam japna: Keeping God in mind at all times. Kirt Karna: Earning an honest living. Since God is truth, a Sikh seeks to live honestly. This doesn't just mean avoiding crime; Sikhs avoid gambling, begging, or working in the alcohol or tobacco industries. Vand Chhakna: (Literally, sharing one's earnings with others) Giving to charity and caring for others.

The five vices Sikhs try to avoid the five vices that make people self-centred,

The five vices Sikhs try to avoid the five vices that make people self-centred, and build barriers against God in their lives. Lust Covetousness and greed Attachment to things of this world Anger Pride If a person can overcome these vices they are on the road to liberation.

The Five Ks The 5 Ks date from the creation of the Khalsa Panth

The Five Ks The 5 Ks date from the creation of the Khalsa Panth by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. Kesh (uncut hair) Kara (a steel bracelet) Kanga (a wooden comb) Kaccha - also spelt, Kachh, Kachera (cotton underwear) Kirpan (steel sword)

Holy days Diwali for Sikhs For Sikhs, Diwali is particularly important because it celebrates

Holy days Diwali for Sikhs For Sikhs, Diwali is particularly important because it celebrates the release from prison of the sixth guru, Guru Hargobind, and 52 other princes with him, in 1619. Diwali is known as the 'festival of lights' because houses, shops and public places are decorated with small earthenware oil lamps called Diyas. These lamps, which are traditionally fueled by mustard oil, are placed in rows in windows, doors and outside buildings to decorate them.

Gurpurbs are festivals that are associated with the lives of the Gurus. They are

Gurpurbs are festivals that are associated with the lives of the Gurus. They are happy occasions which are celebrated most enthusiastically by Sikhs. The most important Gurpurbs are: The birthday of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism (April or November) The birthday of Guru Gobind Singh, founder of the Khalsa (January) The martyrdom of Guru Arjan (June) The martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur (November/December Gurdwaras are decorated with flowers, flags and lights, and Sikhs dress up in new or smart clothes and join together for special services. Hymns are sung from the Guru Granth Sahib, poems are recited in praise of the Gurus and there are lectures on Sikhism.

Summary of what is allowed and what is forbidden in Marriage Persons not professing

Summary of what is allowed and what is forbidden in Marriage Persons not professing the Sikh faith cannot be joined in wedlock by the Anand Karaj ceremony. Child marriage is forbidden. All Hindu superstitions about good or bad days and rituals before, during and after marriage are strictly forbidden. Sikhs practise monogamy. Widows or widowers may remarry. While husband wife roles are regarded as complementary (and despite erosion of certain Sikh values due to the proximity and influence of the Hindu majority in India), men and women's equality is enshrined in the teachings of Guru Granth Sahib.

Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of

Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs, and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha Two major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle").

Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance

Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. Two of the most important teachings are dependent origination and no-self. The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community).

The Four Noble Truths The truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction) The truth of

The Four Noble Truths The truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction) The truth of the origin of dukkha The truth of the cessation of dukkha The truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha

The first truth explains the nature of dukkha. Dukkha is commonly translated as “suffering”,

The first truth explains the nature of dukkha. Dukkha is commonly translated as “suffering”, “anxiety”, “dissatisfaction”, “unease”. The second truth is that the origin of dukkha can be known. Within the context of the four noble truths, the origin of dukkha is commonly explained as craving (Pali: tanha) conditioned by ignorance (Pali: avijja). On a deeper level, the root cause of dukkha is identified as ignorance (Pali: avijja) of the true nature of things. The third noble truth is that the complete cessation of dukkha is possible the fourth noble truth identifies a path to this cessation.

The Noble Eightfold Path—the fourth of the Buddha's Noble Truths—consists of a set of

The Noble Eightfold Path—the fourth of the Buddha's Noble Truths—consists of a set of eight interconnected factors or conditions, that when developed together, lead to the cessation of dukkha. [40] These eight factors are: Right View (or Right Understanding), Right Intention (or Right Thought), Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

The Four Immeasurables Middle Way May all sentient beings have happiness and its causes,

The Four Immeasurables Middle Way May all sentient beings have happiness and its causes, May all sentient beings be free of suffering and its causes, May all sentient beings never be separated from bliss without suffering, May all sentient beings be in equanimity, free of bias, attachment and anger. An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way (or Middle Path), which is said to have been discovered by Gautama Buddha prior to his enlightenment.

Yoga

Yoga

Islam The word Islam means 'submission to the will of God'. Muslims believe that

Islam The word Islam means 'submission to the will of God'. Muslims believe that Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago in Mecca, Arabia. Followers of Islam are called Muslims.

Muslims believe that there is only One God. The Arabic word for God is

Muslims believe that there is only One God. The Arabic word for God is Allah. According to Muslims, God sent a number of prophets to mankind to teach them how to live according to His law. Jesus, Moses and Abraham are respected as prophets of God. They believe that the final Prophet was Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam has always existed, but for practical purposes, date their religion from the time of the migration of Muhammad. Muslims base their laws on their holy book the Qur'an, and the Sunnah. Muslims believe the Sunnah is the practical example of Prophet Muhammad and that there are five basic Pillars of Islam. These pillars are the declaration of faith, praying five times a day, giving money to charity, fasting and a pilgrimage to Mecca (atleast once)

Basic articles of faith Muslims have six main beliefs. Belief in Allah as the

Basic articles of faith Muslims have six main beliefs. Belief in Allah as the one and only God Belief in angels Belief in the holy books Belief in the Prophets. . . Belief in the Day of Judgement. . . Belief in Predestination. . . Allah is the name Muslims use for the supreme and unique God, who created and rules everything. The heart of faith for all Muslims is obedience to Allah's will.

Holy days Muslim holy days There are only two Muslim festivals set down in

Holy days Muslim holy days There are only two Muslim festivals set down in Islamic law: Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha (Eid or Id is a word meaning festival). But there also several other special days which Muslims celebrate. Some Muslims disapprove of celebrating the birthday of the Prophet, on the grounds that it is an innovation, and innovations in religious matters are forbidden.

Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern day Pakistan.

Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern day Pakistan. Belief Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him. Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, governed by Karma.

History of Hinduism's early history is the subject of much debate for a number

History of Hinduism's early history is the subject of much debate for a number of reasons. Firstly, in a strict sense there was no 'Hinduism' before modern times, although the sources of Hindu traditions are very ancient. Secondly, Hinduism is not a single religion but embraces many traditions. Thirdly, Hinduism has no definite starting point. The traditions which flow into Hinduism may go back several thousand years and some practitioners claim that the Hindu revelation is eternal.

Main historical periods Although the early history of Hinduism is difficult to date with

Main historical periods Although the early history of Hinduism is difficult to date with certainty, the following list presents a rough chronology. Before 2000 BCE: The Indus Valley Civilisation 1500– 500 BCE: The Vedic Period 500 BCE– 500 CE: The Epic, Puranic and Classical Age 500 CE– 1500 CE: Medieval Period 1500– 1757 CE: Pre-Modern Period 1757– 1947 CE: British Period 1947 CE–the present: Independent India

The five tensile strands Across the sweep of Indian religious history, at least five

The five tensile strands Across the sweep of Indian religious history, at least five elements have given shape to the Hindu religious tradition: doctrine, practice, society, story, and devotion. These five elements, to adopt a typical Hindu metaphor, are understood as relating to one another as strands in an elaborate braid. Moreover, each strand develops out of a history of conversation, elaboration, and challenge. Hence, in looking for what makes the tradition cohere, it is sometimes better to locate central points of tension than to expect clear agreements on Hindu thought and practice.

Judaism • Judaism is the original of the three Abrahamic faiths, which also includes

Judaism • Judaism is the original of the three Abrahamic faiths, which also includes Christianity and Islam. • According to information published by The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, there were around 13. 1 million Jewish people in the world in 2007, most residing in the USA and Israel. According to the 2001 census 267, 000 people in the UK said that their religious identity was Jewish, about 0. 5% of the population.

 • Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago • Judaism

• Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago • Judaism was founded by Moses, although Jews trace their history back to Abraham. • Jews believe that there is only one God with whom they have a covenant.

Belief ------- Converting to Judaism • Converting to Judaism is not easy. It involves

Belief ------- Converting to Judaism • Converting to Judaism is not easy. It involves many lifestyle changes and about a year of studying. • Becoming a Jew is not just a religious change: the convert not only accepts the Jewish faith, but becomes a member of the Jewish People and embraces Jewish culture and history.

Conversion and Jewish law Conversion to Judaism is a process governed by Jewish religious

Conversion and Jewish law Conversion to Judaism is a process governed by Jewish religious law. Conversions are overseen by a religious court, which must be convinced that the convert: • is sincere • is converting for the right reasons • is converting of their own free will • has a thorough knowledge of Jewish faith and practices • will live an observant Jewish life

There also two ritual requirements: a male convert must undergo circumcision - if they

There also two ritual requirements: a male convert must undergo circumcision - if they are already circumcised, a single drop of blood is drawn as a symbolic circumcision the convert must undergo immersion in a Jewish ritual bath, a mikveh, with appropriate prayers

Judaism and conversion • Judaism is not a missionary faith and so doesn't actively

Judaism and conversion • Judaism is not a missionary faith and so doesn't actively try to convert people (in many countries anti-Jewish laws prohibited this for centuries). • A person who converts to Judaism becomes a Jew in every sense of the word, and is just as Jewish as someone born into Judaism. There is a good precedent for this; Ruth, the great grandmother of King David, was a convert.

 • Orthodox Jews usually don't accept the validity of conversions done by non-Orthodox

• Orthodox Jews usually don't accept the validity of conversions done by non-Orthodox institutions - because many Orthodox Jewish communities do not accept that non-Orthodox rabbis have valid rabbinical status. • Heart and Soul spoke to people who chose to take the difficult path to convert to Judaism. Among those interviewed were Theo Heser, a former member of the Hitler Youth, who sees his conversion as an act of atonement.

Customs ---The Sabbath is commanded by God • Every week religious Jews observe the

Customs ---The Sabbath is commanded by God • Every week religious Jews observe the Sabbath, the Jewish holy day, and keep its laws and customs. • The Sabbath begins at nightfall on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday. In practical terms the Sabbath starts a few minutes before sunset on Friday and runs until an hour after sunset on Saturday, so it lasts about 25 hours. • God commanded the Jewish People to observe the Sabbath and keep it holy as the fourth of the Ten Commandments. • The idea of a day of rest comes from the Bible story of the Creation: God rested from creating the universe on the seventh day of that first week, so Jews rest from work on the Sabbath. • Jews often call the day Shabbat, which is Hebrew for Sabbath, and which comes from the Hebrew word for rest.

A reminder of the Covenant • The Sabbath is part of the deal between

A reminder of the Covenant • The Sabbath is part of the deal between God and the Jewish People, so celebrating it is a reminder of the Covenant and an occasion to rejoice in God's kept promises.

Holy Day A gift from God • Most Jewish people look forward to Shabbat

Holy Day A gift from God • Most Jewish people look forward to Shabbat all week. They see it as God's gift to his chosen people of a day when they take time out from everyday things to feel special. • Shabbat is a time with no television, no rushing to the demands of the telephone or a busy work schedule.

 • Sabbath greetings • The traditional Sabbath greetings are Shabbat Shalom (Hebrew), or

• Sabbath greetings • The traditional Sabbath greetings are Shabbat Shalom (Hebrew), or Gut Shabbos (Yiddish). • A family time • Shabbat is very much a time when families come together in the presence of God in their own home. • Singles, or others with no family around may form a group to celebrate Shabbat together.

Devotion

Devotion

Confucianism Origin • Confucianism is the term used to describe the family of traditions

Confucianism Origin • Confucianism is the term used to describe the family of traditions that are based on the teachings of Confucius (c. 551 -479 B. C. E. ), a Chinese thinker whose given name was Kong Qiu and whose disciples called him Kongzi (“Master Kong”). Kongzi‘s ideas became well known only after his death in the 5 th century B. C. E.

 • In the 4 th-century interpreter Mengzi (better known in the West as

• In the 4 th-century interpreter Mengzi (better known in the West as Mencius), Mengzi's 3 rd -century critic Xunzi, and many others joined the debate about Confucian thought, adding their own ideas about human nature and morality, and considering practical applications, particularly to political rule and government.

Development History • Confucianism was further developed by Mencius (372 B. C. -289 B.

Development History • Confucianism was further developed by Mencius (372 B. C. -289 B. C. ) and Xun Zi. It was in the reign of Emperor Wu during the Han Dynasty that Confucianism was promoted to being the state ideology. Since then, it became the orthodox doctrine of Chinese society. And Confucius was glorified as a Saint instead of an ordinary man. •

 • In the coming Wei and Jin Dynasties, Confucianism coexisted with Buddhism and

• In the coming Wei and Jin Dynasties, Confucianism coexisted with Buddhism and Taoism. Up to the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the struggle for dominance between the three became heated. The Song Dynasty witnessed a vital period of its development. Featuring Confucian school of idealist philosophy of the Song and Ming dynasties, it restored its orthodox role for the following 700 years.

Confucianism in Recent Days • In recent years people can look at Confucianism with

Confucianism in Recent Days • In recent years people can look at Confucianism with a more rational state of mind, some even suggest returning to Confucianism for wisdom while opponents hold that Confucianism should be held responsible for the backwardness of China's development and for that reason its dominance should not be revived. In any event, that would not be possible.

 • To our delight, many scholars devote themselves to the study of Confucianism

• To our delight, many scholars devote themselves to the study of Confucianism and its application to modern society. Such study is important as the Chinese language has experienced considerable changes over the centuries and the lack of any punctuation in the ancient classics has made it difficult for us to fully comprehend his ideology.

The Devotion of Confucianism • Confucianism is succinct as well as intensive. Strictly speaking,

The Devotion of Confucianism • Confucianism is succinct as well as intensive. Strictly speaking, it is not a religion but more a doctrine than belief, while the meaning behind the beautiful words renders wordy post-modernism pale and dull. Confucianism is part of world cultural heritage and an integral part of Chinese life.

Christianity Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament. Christians

Christianity Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament. Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Christians believe that God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins. One of the most important concepts in Christianity is that of Jesus giving his life on the Cross (the Crucifixion) and rising from the dead on the third day (the Resurrection). Christians believe that there is only one God, but that there are three elements to this one God:

The basics of Christian history Life and death of Jesus Background to the life

The basics of Christian history Life and death of Jesus Background to the life and death of Jesus Christ The traditional story of Jesus tells of his birth in a stable in Bethlehem in the Holy Land, to a young virgin called Mary who had become pregnant with the son of God through the action of the Holy Spirit. The story of Jesus' birth is told in the writings of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament of the Bible. His birth is believed by Christians to be the fulfilment of prophecies in the Jewish Old Testament, which claimed that a Messiah would deliver the Jewish people from captivity.

What is original sin? Original sin is an Augustine Christian doctrine that says that

What is original sin? Original sin is an Augustine Christian doctrine that says that everyone is born sinful. This means that they are born with a built-in urge to do bad things and to disobey God. It is an important doctrine within the Roman Catholic Church. The concept of Original Sin was explained in depth by St Augustine and formalised as part of Roman Catholic doctrine by the Councils of Trent in the 16 th Century. Original sin is not just this inherited spiritual disease or defect in human nature; it's also the 'condemnation' that goes with that fault. The sin of Adam In traditional Christian teaching, original sin is the result of Adam and Eve's disobedience to God when they ate a forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.

Effects of original sin Original sin affects individuals by separating them from God, and

Effects of original sin Original sin affects individuals by separating them from God, and bringing dissatisfaction and guilt into their lives. On a world scale, original sin explains such things as genocide, war, cruelty, exploitation and abuse, and the "presence and universality of sin in human history". How to cure original sin Some Christians believe that human beings can't cure themselves of original sin. The only way they can be saved from its consequences is by the grace of God. The only way people can receive God's grace is by accepting his love and forgiveness, believing that Jesus Christ died on the cross to redeem their sins, and getting baptised.

Symbol of the Christianity—the Cross Paradoxically a symbol of suffering and defeat but also

Symbol of the Christianity—the Cross Paradoxically a symbol of suffering and defeat but also of triumph and salvation, the cross is the universal Christian symbol, acknowledged by all denominations as the single visual identifier of their faith. While Good Friday marks the Passion of Christ and his crucifixion, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians also reflect on the cross as a symbol of salvation with the feast of The Triumph of the Cross on 14 th September.

Holy Days--Christmas is marked on the 25 December (7 January for Orthodox Christians). Christmas

Holy Days--Christmas is marked on the 25 December (7 January for Orthodox Christians). Christmas is a Christian holy day that marks the birth of Jesus, the son of God. The first Christmas The Gospels do not mention the date of Jesus' birth. It was not until the 4 th century AD that Pope Julius I set 25 th December as the date for Christmas. This was an attempt to Christianise the Pagan celebrations that already took place at this time of year. By 529, 25 th December had become a civil holiday and by 567 the twelve days from 25 th December to the Epiphany were public holidays.