Relationships between resident and anadromous O mykiss in

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Relationships between resident and anadromous O. mykiss in Cedar River, WA: improving the chances

Relationships between resident and anadromous O. mykiss in Cedar River, WA: improving the chances for steelhead recovery, or Anne Marshall WA Dept of Fish and Wildlife

Current research project“Genetic relationships among anadromous and non-anadromous O. mykiss in Cedar River and

Current research project“Genetic relationships among anadromous and non-anadromous O. mykiss in Cedar River and Lake Washington: implications for steelhead recovery planning” Principal investigators- Anne Marshall, Maureen Small, and Steve Foley; WDFW Funded in part by Seattle Public Utilities, Landsburg Mitigation Agreement

Motivation for our study. Steelhead population was declining but rainbow trout appeared to be

Motivation for our study. Steelhead population was declining but rainbow trout appeared to be abundant in Cedar River Adult and juvenile fish passage at Landsburg Dam was to be completed by 2003, opening up ~18 miles of former steelhead habitat Previous genetic results for O. mykiss parr above and below the dam

Managers’ needs – Concerns about extinction risks and obligation to pursue mitigation for dam

Managers’ needs – Concerns about extinction risks and obligation to pursue mitigation for dam impacts in Cedar River. . . Should artificial production of steelhead be pursued? Would trout above the dam become anadromous once passage was open? What in-basin factors were limiting the success of steelhead?

Our premise – Understanding relationships between the co-occurring life-history forms was critical for effective

Our premise – Understanding relationships between the co-occurring life-history forms was critical for effective management of steelhead Were steelhead producing the majority of resident fish? If so, were resident fish contributing to smolt production? Were resident trout of non-local origin and were they creating impacts through interbreeding and competition?

Research Goal – “Understand genetic population structure of Cedar River and Lake Washington O.

Research Goal – “Understand genetic population structure of Cedar River and Lake Washington O. mykiss so that managers can design and implement effective strategies to conserve and recover native steelhead and rainbow trout resources”

Research objectives – Determine genetic relationships between adult steelhead and adult resident O. mykiss

Research objectives – Determine genetic relationships between adult steelhead and adult resident O. mykiss in Cedar R. & Lake WA Determine genetic relationships between smolts and potential parent groups Investigate in-depth the genetic relationships between above and below dam populations Estimate extent of O. clarki and O. mykiss hybridization Estimate effective population size if appropriate

Background information and environment –

Background information and environment –

Special features for this coastal steelhead population – • Engineered river and migrational route

Special features for this coastal steelhead population – • Engineered river and migrational route • Large lake basin in migrational route • Within largest metropolitan area of WA • Large sympatric sockeye population • Relatively large and apparently adfluvial sympatric cutthroat population

Cedar River watershed, Puget Sound, WA Map from City of Seattle, Cedar R. Habitat

Cedar River watershed, Puget Sound, WA Map from City of Seattle, Cedar R. Habitat Conservation Plan web site

Physical, migrational barriers for Cedar River steelhead Landsburg Dam, RM 21 Ballard Locks, 1

Physical, migrational barriers for Cedar River steelhead Landsburg Dam, RM 21 Ballard Locks, 1 mi from Puget Sound (ship canal entrance to Lake Washington) Bridge Trolls

Cedar River wild steelhead annual escapement estimates

Cedar River wild steelhead annual escapement estimates

Cedar River and other O. mykiss populations - plot of genetic distances based on

Cedar River and other O. mykiss populations - plot of genetic distances based on allozyme data from S. Phelps and B. Baker (Cedar River above Landsburg Dam) (Chester Morse Reservoir) (Hatchery exotic rainbow stock)

Methods Sampling: Fish capture – two year cycle with 50 -fish goal per site

Methods Sampling: Fish capture – two year cycle with 50 -fish goal per site per year: fish ladder trap at Locks; angling for adults (>30 cm); screw trap for smolts Fin clips and scales Genetic: Microsatellite DNA markers; nuclear species markers; possibly mitochondrial DNA markers Genetic population statistics; differentiation metrics; assignment and admixture tests

Populations or groups included in study plan 1. Steelhead at Ballard Locks 2. Steelhead

Populations or groups included in study plan 1. Steelhead at Ballard Locks 2. Steelhead in Cedar River 3. Cedar R. resident O. mykiss below Landsburg Dam 4. Cedar R. resident O. mykiss above Landsburg Dam 5. Chester Morse Lake O. mykiss 6. Adult O. mykiss in Lake Washington 7. Cedar R. O. mykiss smolts - lower river trap 8. Wild Green River steelhead 9. Hatchery steelhead stock in Green River 10. Resident O. mykiss from Green River Basin 11. Hatchery exotic-origin rainbow trout stocks 12. Cedar R. /Lake Washington cutthroat trout (O. clarki)

Sampling results to date 1. Steelhead at Ballard Locks N=56 (1 from 2003, rest

Sampling results to date 1. Steelhead at Ballard Locks N=56 (1 from 2003, rest from 1997, ‘ 98 & ’ 99 scale samples) 3. Cedar R. resident O. mykiss below Landsburg Dam N=53 4. Cedar R. resident O. mykiss above Landsburg Dam N=50 6. Adult O. mykiss in Lake Washington N=4 7. Cedar R. O. mykiss smolts - lower river trap N=17 8. Wild Green River steelhead N=122 (from 2002 and 2003) 12. Cedar R. /Lake Washington O. clarki (and 10 potential O. mykiss/O. clarki hybrids) N=36

Existing samples included in preliminary genetic analyses Hatchery winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) from

Existing samples included in preliminary genetic analyses Hatchery winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) from Puyallup River Basin – current substitute for hatchery stock sample (9. ) from Green River 11. Hatchery exotic-origin rainbow trout stocks South Tacoma Hatchery, Spokane Hatchery, Goldendale Hatchery, & Eell Springs Hatchery – all are California-origin stocks

Resident O. mykiss sampled in lower Cedar River in May 2003 for genetic analysis

Resident O. mykiss sampled in lower Cedar River in May 2003 for genetic analysis

More sampled fish…

More sampled fish…

O. clarki from lower Cedar River, where potential interspecific hybrids (based on phenotype) were

O. clarki from lower Cedar River, where potential interspecific hybrids (based on phenotype) were also sampled.

Sampled Fish Size & Age Pop. /Site Ave. Length cm (N) Ave. Age (range)

Sampled Fish Size & Age Pop. /Site Ave. Length cm (N) Ave. Age (range) Steelhead. Ballard locks 72. 7 (53) Resident O. mykiss- lower Cedar 35. 7 (53) 3. 6 (2 – 8) 24. 3 (50) 2. 0 (1 – 5) 18. 7 (17) Resident O. mykiss- upper Cedar Smolts [next Table] (3 – 6)

Steelhead Ages – Ballard Locks (N=56) Age Class % W 1. 1+ 14 W

Steelhead Ages – Ballard Locks (N=56) Age Class % W 1. 1+ 14 W 1. 2+ 2. 1+ 7 48 30 females and 26 males 2. 2+ 2. 3+ 3. 1+ 3. 2+ 23 2 4 2

Microsatellite DNA loci used for preliminary analyses to date Oki-10 Ots-1 Omm-1128 One-2 Ots-3

Microsatellite DNA loci used for preliminary analyses to date Oki-10 Ots-1 Omm-1128 One-2 Ots-3 M Omm-1130 One-18 Ots-100 Omm-1138 A One-102 Ots-103 Omm-1138 B One-114 Omy-325 Sco-103 One-101 Omy-1001 Sco-110 One-108 Omy-1011 Ogo-3

Ongoing Statistical analyses of microsatellite genetic data Hybrids analysis with nuclear markers Assignment and

Ongoing Statistical analyses of microsatellite genetic data Hybrids analysis with nuclear markers Assignment and mixture analysis for smolts and other samples Sampling for year 2 to begin in March or April 2004 Progress report in June 2004