Regulatory Program Authority Granted by Congress Section 10

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Regulatory Program Authority Granted by Congress: Section 10 Rivers & Harbors Act of 1899

Regulatory Program Authority Granted by Congress: Section 10 Rivers & Harbors Act of 1899 Process Leading to Decision: National Environmental Policy Act Purpose: Objective Review Public Involvement Informed Decision

Environmental Impact Statement n Jan – June 2002: EIS Scoping – March 2002 hearings

Environmental Impact Statement n Jan – June 2002: EIS Scoping – March 2002 hearings July – November 2002: developed preliminary sites and screening criteria n November – March 2002: Screening list of preliminary alternatives n

Environmental Impact Statement n n n Detailed evaluation of sites undergoing further review –

Environmental Impact Statement n n n Detailed evaluation of sites undergoing further review – Data collection Draft EIS released for public review & comment Public Hearing Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision - Issue or Deny permit

Site Screening Process n EIS scoping Spring 2002 – Sites suggested through public comment

Site Screening Process n EIS scoping Spring 2002 – Sites suggested through public comment – initial screening criteria in June 2002 scope n Start with a long list of offshore & terrestrial sites throughout NE – Using available information screen out/eliminate sites do not warrant detailed evaluation

EIS scope “project purpose” Commercial scale renewable energy facility providing power to the New

EIS scope “project purpose” Commercial scale renewable energy facility providing power to the New England grid

Range of Alternatives Practical & feasible in light of the underlying purpose & need

Range of Alternatives Practical & feasible in light of the underlying purpose & need for the proposal n Not require costly & time-consuming evaluation of conjectural alternatives n

Commercial scale n Applicant proposed 420 MW facility » Recent projects in ISO-NE area

Commercial scale n Applicant proposed 420 MW facility » Recent projects in ISO-NE area range 200 -1500 MW » Corps has looked at +/-20% as reasonable for previous projects » Example: strip mall not considered a reasonable alternative to a regional shopping mall

Renewable energy wind, n tidal, n solar, n biomass, n hydroelectric n

Renewable energy wind, n tidal, n solar, n biomass, n hydroelectric n

Renewable technologies information previously developed by others n which renewable energy sources may be

Renewable technologies information previously developed by others n which renewable energy sources may be considered feasible at this scale n

n Wind – – – Intermittment power source Highly visible Technological advances in past

n Wind – – – Intermittment power source Highly visible Technological advances in past 20 years Fastest growing energy source in U. S. Generating capacity from 1 kw-600 mw More than 20, 000 commercial-sized wind turbines producing 2, 000 mw worldwide within last 10 years. – DOE standardized classification system of wind resource

n Tidal – Similar to hydropower concept (barrage, powerhouse, turbine) – Power typically produced

n Tidal – Similar to hydropower concept (barrage, powerhouse, turbine) – Power typically produced during ebb tide –. 4 mw-240 mw generating capacity – Typically tidal ranges > 10 -15 feet – Highly variable power generation – tidal cycles – Average capacity 25 -30% of maximum output capacity – 240 mw – France – 8 meter tide range – Northern Maine only potential New England Location

n Wave – Technology is not yet commercially viable – Variety of wave capture

n Wave – Technology is not yet commercially viable – Variety of wave capture technologies (surge, heaving, pitching, oscillating) – Least developed renewable energy technology – Generating capacity 1 -30 mw – Currently, only small (<5 mw) projects in development

n Photovoltaic (P/V)/Solar – Solar energy storage – intermittent power – New England has

n Photovoltaic (P/V)/Solar – Solar energy storage – intermittent power – New England has lower direct insolation than other parts of the country – Average duty cycles: 1, 500 hours/yr – N. E. – Flat rate systems 50 w-200 kw – More feasible for off-grid and consumer applications – High cost to produce ($0. 38 -0. 80 kwh) – Low efficiency

n Biomass – Biomass feedstocks used as fuel source » Direct combustion » Biomass

n Biomass – Biomass feedstocks used as fuel source » Direct combustion » Biomass gasification » Close-coupled gasification – Second largest renewable energy resource in U. S. (7, 000 mwinstalled) – Biomass integrated gasification (BIG) integrated into combined cycle gas turbines – not effective on commercial scale yet – Small scale demonstration projects 25 kw-5 mw – One BIG/GCGT in Sweden (6 mw) – Results in generation of 100’s ton of annual air emissions (NOx. SO 2)

n Hydroelectric – Major hydro capacity is N. New England – Output can vary

n Hydroelectric – Major hydro capacity is N. New England – Output can vary with seasonal flow – Annual utilization rates of 40 -50% (1, 000 -7, 000 hours) – Small hydropower (1 -30 mw) – 50% of the capacity – Large hydropower (>30 mw) – remaining 50% – Utilize impoundments, dams, diversion facilities, canals, run-of-river – Environmental impacts resulting from impoundment

Renewable Technologies Summary n n Solar not for large scale generation Wave & tidal

Renewable Technologies Summary n n Solar not for large scale generation Wave & tidal are still developing, not clear that NE has suitable conditions Hydroelectric sites are in northern NE where there is no demand-existing facilities being decommissioned in some places Wind & Biomass– greatest potential for larger scale projects (Biomass combustion has air quality impacts)

Screening Criteria

Screening Criteria

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Sufficient surplus electric transmission capacity to transport 200 -1, 500

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Sufficient surplus electric transmission capacity to transport 200 -1, 500 MW to load centers throughout the ISO-NE transmission system

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Wind Power Classification of 4 or greater (Wind speeds >15.

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Wind Power Classification of 4 or greater (Wind speeds >15. 7 mph at 50 meters)

Wind Resource at 65 m Created by True. Wind Solutions and AWS Scientific Funded

Wind Resource at 65 m Created by True. Wind Solutions and AWS Scientific Funded by Connecticut Clean Energy Fund, Mass. Technology Collaborative, Northeast Utilities Systems

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Available land or offshore watersheet area sufficient to accommodate a

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Available land or offshore watersheet area sufficient to accommodate a 200 -1, 500 MW wind energy project

Equivalent Land / Water Area Ratio for Wind Energy Generation n n Assuming Wind

Equivalent Land / Water Area Ratio for Wind Energy Generation n n Assuming Wind Power Class 4 or greater Industry Accepted Project Planning Guidelines: – 1. 2 X Ratio of Land to Water area for equivalent MW capacity – Land based: » Ridgeline = 1 mile per 10 MW » Open Space = 20 acres per 1 MW n Lower wind class requires more land area per MW

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Engineering and design limitations: – Physical, geological and environmental site

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Engineering and design limitations: – Physical, geological and environmental site conditions – Offshore water depths <50 feet mean low water with significant wave heights of <18 feet – Practical construction and maintenance access of state-of-the-art (2. 7 MW or greater) wind turbine generators – Practical construction and maintenance of land submarine electric transmission line interconnections – Available technology - Use of Alternating Current (AC) transmission systems

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Legal/Regulatory constraints – State or federal land or water use

Preliminary Screening Criteria n Legal/Regulatory constraints – State or federal land or water use exclusions – Avoidance of state or federally protected environmental resource areas

Alternative Sites

Alternative Sites

Alternative Sites n Land-Based Alternatives – – – – Massachusetts Military Reservation Searsburg, VT

Alternative Sites n Land-Based Alternatives – – – – Massachusetts Military Reservation Searsburg, VT Princeton, MA Skinner/Kibby townships, ME Redington Pond/Black Nubble Mountain, ME Naugatuck and Housatonic Rivers, CT (Brownfield) Greenfield, MA (Landfill)

Massachusetts Military Reservation / Otis Air Force Base

Massachusetts Military Reservation / Otis Air Force Base

Expansion at Searsburg VT. (Existing 6 MW Facility)

Expansion at Searsburg VT. (Existing 6 MW Facility)

Expansion at Princeton MA. (Existing Facility)

Expansion at Princeton MA. (Existing Facility)

Skinner / Kibby Township Maine

Skinner / Kibby Township Maine

Redington Black Nubble Mt. Maine

Redington Black Nubble Mt. Maine

CT. DOT Site (Brownfield)

CT. DOT Site (Brownfield)

City of Greenfield Landfill

City of Greenfield Landfill

Alternative Sites n Offshore Alternatives – Nantucket Sound, MA – Nantucket Shoals, MA –

Alternative Sites n Offshore Alternatives – Nantucket Sound, MA – Nantucket Shoals, MA – Martha’s Vineyard, MA (south) – Block Island, RI – Cape Ann, MA – Vinalhaven Island, ME

Nantucket Sound

Nantucket Sound

Nantucket Shoals

Nantucket Shoals

South of Martha’s Vineyard

South of Martha’s Vineyard

Block Island

Block Island

Cape Ann

Cape Ann

Vinalhaven Island

Vinalhaven Island

Applying Criteria

Applying Criteria

Massachusetts Military Reservation

Massachusetts Military Reservation

Massachusetts Military Reservation, MA Transmission Capacity Surplus ü Available Land Area =Approximately 22, 000

Massachusetts Military Reservation, MA Transmission Capacity Surplus ü Available Land Area =Approximately 22, 000 acres Wind Power Class = 3 Engineering or Regulatory Constraints ü § EPA Superfund National Priority Listed Site § Priority Habitats of Rare Species § Adjacent to Shawme –Crowell State Forest and Crane State Wildlife Management Area § Active Military Use with land use restrictions

Existing Searsburg 6 MW Facility

Existing Searsburg 6 MW Facility

Searsburg, VT (expansion) Existing-Eleven 550 k. W WTGs along. 6 miles of ridgeline, encompassing

Searsburg, VT (expansion) Existing-Eleven 550 k. W WTGs along. 6 miles of ridgeline, encompassing 35 acres = 6 MW Facility ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class 4 Available Land Area § 30 -40 MW of additional WTG installation available along adjacent ridgelines § would require private lands acquisition and use of Green Mountain National Forest lands

Princeton MA. facility

Princeton MA. facility

Princeton, MA (expansion) Existing facility - Eight 40 k. W WTGs Princeton Municipal Light

Princeton, MA (expansion) Existing facility - Eight 40 k. W WTGs Princeton Municipal Light Department ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 2 -3 Available Land Area – – – Wachusett Mt. State Reservation Minns Wildlife Sanctuary Private Lands

Skinner Kibby Township

Skinner Kibby Township

Skinner / Kibby Township, ME Transmission Capacity Surplus North – South Transmission Constraint ü

Skinner / Kibby Township, ME Transmission Capacity Surplus North – South Transmission Constraint ü Wind Power Class = 5 Available Land Area-owner not willing to sell Would require 50 miles of new or upgraded roads

Redington Pond Range Black Nubble Mt.

Redington Pond Range Black Nubble Mt.

Redington/Black Nubble Mt, ME ü Transmission Capacity Surplus North – South transmission constraint Wind

Redington/Black Nubble Mt, ME ü Transmission Capacity Surplus North – South transmission constraint Wind Power Class = 5 Available Land Area Property currently being developed Twenty nine 1. 75 k. W WTGs proposed (52 MW) over 220 acres along approx. 5 miles of ridgeline Notes: Navy Survival School

CT. DOT Site (Brownfield)

CT. DOT Site (Brownfield)

CT DOT Site (Brownfield), CT Transmission Capacity Surplus üTransmission restricted Wind Power Class =

CT DOT Site (Brownfield), CT Transmission Capacity Surplus üTransmission restricted Wind Power Class = 2 Available Land Area 18 acres Urban site

City of Greenfield MA. Landfill Site

City of Greenfield MA. Landfill Site

City of Greenfield, MA Landfill ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 3

City of Greenfield, MA Landfill ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 3 Topographically blocked from wind resource Located at Base of Berkshire Mountains Available Land Area Approximately 20 acres Adjacent to Deerfield River (wetlands/floodplain) Notes: Contains Priority Habitat of Rare Species and Estimated Habitat of Rare Wildlife and Certified Vernal Pools

Proposed Alternative Horseshoe Shoal

Proposed Alternative Horseshoe Shoal

Nantucket Sound, MA ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus = yes Wind Power Class

Nantucket Sound, MA ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus = yes Wind Power Class = 5 Available Watersheet Area = yes Notes: Water Depths less than 50 ft. Sheltered from Open Ocean exposure Max Wave Hgt. = 15 ft.

Nantucket Shoals

Nantucket Shoals

Nantucket Shoals, MA ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Interconnection distance too long for AC

Nantucket Shoals, MA ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Interconnection distance too long for AC line Wind Power Class = 6 Available Watersheet Area Notes: Water depths less than 50 ft. Open ocean exposure from south and east Max Wave Hgt = 31. 5 ft (WIS #88) 37. 0 ft (WIS #89) Whale sitings in general vicinity

Martha’s Vineyard

Martha’s Vineyard

South of Martha’s Vineyard, MA 1. Transmission Capacity Surplus Interconnection distance too long for

South of Martha’s Vineyard, MA 1. Transmission Capacity Surplus Interconnection distance too long for AC 2. 3. 4. Wind Power Class = 5 Available Watersheet Area Notes: Water Depths greater than 50 ft. Open Ocean Exposure to the south Max Wave Hgt = 26. 9 ft (WIS #86) Unexploded Ordinance near Nomans land Entrance to Muskeget Channel Seal winter haul out location (Nomans Land)

Block Island

Block Island

Block Island, RI ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 3 -4

Block Island, RI ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 3 -4 Available Watersheet Area Notes: Water Depths greater than 50 ft. Open Ocean Exposure to the south Max Wave Hgt = 30. 2 ft (WIS #82) Major Shipping Channels Whales & seals known to frequent area

Cape Ann

Cape Ann

Cape Ann, MA ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 4

Cape Ann, MA ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 4 Available Watersheet Area Notes: Water Depths greater than 50 ft. Open Ocean Exposure from the east Max Wave Hgt = 37. 7 ft (WIS #95) Concentration of right whale and humpback whale sightings Harbor seal and/or grey seal winter haul out location (The Salvages)

Vinalhaven Island

Vinalhaven Island

Coastal Maine (Vinalhaven) ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 4

Coastal Maine (Vinalhaven) ü ü ü Transmission Capacity Surplus Wind Power Class = 4 Available Watersheet Area Notes: Water Depths greater than 50 ft. Open Ocean Exposure to the east Max Wave Hgt = 38. 7 ft (WIS #103) Geology (shallow bedrock / rock outcroppings) Shipping Channels Whales & seals

Next Step Which sites are to be eliminated from further consideration? n Which sites

Next Step Which sites are to be eliminated from further consideration? n Which sites warrant detailed evaluation? n

Schedule n Initial timeline – minimum time required for each part of process n

Schedule n Initial timeline – minimum time required for each part of process n Draft EIS issuance dependent upon sites chosen for detailed evaluation: May - December