Regional Cooperation in the Caspian Sea Caspian Environment
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Regional Cooperation in the Caspian Sea
Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) Environmental program initiated by Republic of Azerbaijan, I. R. Iran, Republic of Kazakhstan, Russian Federation &Turkmenistan l Officially launched in 1998 l Total budget of about 13 m $ l § § § GEF UNDP EU/Tacis World Bank UNEP
Overall Goal of the Caspian Environment Programme(CEP) “Environmentally sustainable development and management of the Caspian ecological resources in order to obtain the optimal long-term benefits for the human population of the region".
GEF-CEP Phase-I (1998 -2002) • Establishment of a Program Coordination Unit (PCU) in Baku • Establishment of Caspian Regional Thematic Centres (CRTCs) • Development of Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea • Preparation of the Transboudary Diagnostic Analysis Report (TDA) • Five National Caspian Action Plan (NCAP) • Strategic Action Program (SAP) • Priority Investment Portfolios Projects (PIPPs) • Matched Small Grant Projects (MSGPs)
CEP-Caspian Regional Thematic Centres (CRTCs): Assessment of Transboundary Biodiversity Priorities, Kazakhstan Water Level Fluctuations, Kazakhstan Sustainable Management of Fish Resources and other Commercially Important Species, Russian Federation Institutional, Legal, Regulatory and Economic Frameworks, Russian Federation Combating Coastal Desertification and Land Degradation, Turkmenistan Contaminant Abatement and Control Policies and Procedures, Azerbaijan Effective Regional Information and Data Management, Azerbaijan Regional Emergency Response Actions, I. R. Iran Effective Regional Assessment of Contaminant Levels, I. R. Iran Integrated Transboundary Coastal Area Management and Planning, I. R. Iran Sustainable Human Development and Health, Turkmenistan
Definition of TDA: o A TDA is a scientific and technical assessment through which the water related environmental issues and problems of a region are identified and quantified, their causes analyzed and their impacts, both environmental and economic, assessed.
Pollution Hot Spots Country Azerbaijan • Baku Bay/ Apsheron Peninsula • Sumgait • Kura River Iran • Sefid-Rood River area/ Bandar Anzali • Chalus/Now Shahr ports • Gorgan Lagoon Kazakhstan • Ural River Delta • Bautino/Fort Shevchenko • Aktau Russian Federation • Astrakhan/ Volga River delta • Lopatin • Makhachkala • Derbent
Priority Areas for Monitoring (2007 -2008) APCs: Azerbaijan Baku Bay and Absheron Kura River Sumgait Iran Sefid Rood River Bandar Anzali Chalus/Noshahr Gorgan Bay Turkmenistan Krasnavodsk Chelekan Kazakhstan Ural River del Aterau Aktau Russia Derbent (Terek) Makhachkala Volga River delta (A 1) (A-2) (A-3) (I-1) (I-2) (I-3) (I-4) Oil product municipal, BOD NORM, Nutrigen Pesticides, (DDTs), PСBs, Heavy metals Municipal waste water Industrial impact ( heavy metals) CPs, PСBs (T 1) (T 2) Municipal, Heavy metals, NORM (K 1) (K 2) (K 3) Oil and oil products Heavy metals, PСB, s (R 1) (R 2) (R 3) Oil product municipal, BOD, Nitrogen NORM, Pesticides, (DDTs), PСBs, Heavy metals
Environmental Quality Objectives (EQOs) • • • EQOI-Sustainable uses of the natural resources of the Caspian Sea EQOII-Balanced Caspian Environment including biodiversity conservation EQOIII-High quality of Caspian Sea, surface, and ground waters EQOIV-Sustainable multiple use of the Caspian Coastal Environment EQOV-Strengthened civil society participation for purposes of environmentally sustainable development
Current Status of CEP-Phase II(2003 -2007) : o PCU relocated to Iran o SAP and NCAPs are endorsed o SAP and NCAPs are being implemented o Framework Convention is Signed and Ratified, Entered into force and its Protocols are being negotiated o Revisited SAP & NCAPS have paid due consideration to the provisions of the Convention and its Protocols
Teheran Convention Process Ø In June 1995, an international meeting in Tehran confirmed the five countries’ willingness to cooperate in environmental matters, regardless of the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Ø In May, 1998, at Ramsar, the first Steering Committee launched the Caspian Environment Programme, with assistance from the EU/Tacis, UN agencies, WB and the Global Environmental Facility. Ø One of the main Outcome of the CEP was development of a Frame work Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea Ø During the ensuing years, nine working meetings were held to discuss and amend the text of the Framework Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea (Tehran Convention), which was signed in November, 2003. Ø Tehran Convention entered into force on 12 th August 2006, announced as the “Caspian Day”.
Convention’s Secretariat v v Following the signature of the Tehran Convention in 2003, UNEP was assigned as Interim Secretariat. v Three proposals for hosting the Permanent Secretariat have been submitted by the Caspian Littoral States (Azerbaijan, I. R. Iran, and Russian Federation v Political Negotiations are going on. It requires a “Package Deal” v At the First Conference of the Parties (COP) in Baku, April 2006, no decision on the location of the Permanent Secretariat was made v It is envisaged to finalize the location of the Permanent Secretariat at the Second COP, which is to be held in Iran by the Summer 2008
Second Conference of Parties (COPII) will be held in I. R. Iran, Summer 2008 Ø Pending few issues, negotiations on finalization of the texts for three Protocols: Combating Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities; Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context; and Biodiversity Conservation are in progress Ø Protocol Concerning Regional Preparedness, Response and Cooperation in Combating Oil Pollution Incidents will hopefully be signed at the COP-II Ø Decision on the location of the Permanent Secretariat and Financial Arrangement Ø Convention and CEP alignment Ø Other Protocols
Commendable efforts by Caspian Countries to encourage international and regional cooperation : Ø Almaty Declaration of 21 December 1991 between the four CIS countries stating that the new states would continue fulfill international obligations of the USSR. Ø Tehran Communique of October 1992, which committed the states to cooperation in environmental management of the Caspian Sea. Ø Astrakhan Communique of 1993, which reinforced the need to cooperate in environmental matters. Ø Almaty Declaration of Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection (May, 1994) l l Agreed on the need to jointly implement the Convention on Biodiversity and a project for protecting the biodiversity of the Caspian and its coastal zone, to cooperate in environmental protection of the sea and sustainable management of its resources Called on the international community to support the implementation of an environmental programme.
Commendable efforts (cont. ): Ø In June 1995, an international meeting in Tehran confirmed the five countries’ willingness to cooperate in environmental matters, regardless of the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Ø In May, 1998, at Ramsar, the first Steering Committee launched the Caspian Environment Programme, deciding on Baku, Azerbaijan, as the location for the PCU for the first four years of the CEP, and initiating implementation with assistance from the EU/Tacis, UN agencies, WB and the Global Environmental Facility.
The Caspian Sea: Restoring Depleted Fisheries and Consolidation of a Permanent Regional Environmental Governance Framework PIF and PPG approved by the GEF CEO in February 2008 Ø PPG April – September 2008 Ø Start Implementation of the CEP III- October. November 2008 Ø