Regional and Social Dimensions of Innovation Systems Development

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Regional and Social Dimensions of Innovation Systems: Development Strategies for BRICS Mariano Laplane NEIT/IE

Regional and Social Dimensions of Innovation Systems: Development Strategies for BRICS Mariano Laplane NEIT/IE - UNICAMP BRICS Project Workshop Rio de Janeiro Abril de 2007

Share in World Exports 1960 -2003 % 6 India China Brazil Korea, Rep. Poland

Share in World Exports 1960 -2003 % 6 India China Brazil Korea, Rep. Poland Russian Federation 5 4 3 2 1 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2/41

Export Composition - 2004 (%) Primary Products Resource Intensive Low Tech Intensity Medium Tech

Export Composition - 2004 (%) Primary Products Resource Intensive Low Tech Intensity Medium Tech Intensity High Tech Intensity Others Total Brazil China India 32. 6 3. 2 15. 6 21. 9 6. 9 29. 8 11. 0 39. 2 35. 5 24. 9 19. 0 12. 8 7. 9 1. 7 100 30. 5 1. 1 100 5. 4 0. 9 100 3/41

BRICS and selected countries % in World MVA 1995 and 2005 * 1993 and

BRICS and selected countries % in World MVA 1995 and 2005 * 1993 and 2003 Source: UNIDO 4/41

BRICS: MVA per capita (95’ constant S$) 1995 and 2005 Source: UNIDO 5/41

BRICS: MVA per capita (95’ constant S$) 1995 and 2005 Source: UNIDO 5/41

Cientific Development 6/41

Cientific Development 6/41

7/41

7/41

BRICS: R&D Expenditure (% of GDP) 2000 2003 (D %) Brazil 1, 0 -0,

BRICS: R&D Expenditure (% of GDP) 2000 2003 (D %) Brazil 1, 0 -0, 9 Russian Federation 1, 0 1, 3 21, 8 India 0, 8 na - China 1, 0 1, 3 31, 1 South Africa na 0, 8 - High income: OECD 2, 5 2, 4 -1, 0 8/41

BRICS Researchers in R&D (per million people) Brazil 2000 344 Russian Federation 2004 3.

BRICS Researchers in R&D (per million people) Brazil 2000 344 Russian Federation 2004 3. 319 India 1999 119 China 2004 708 South Africa 2001 307 High income: OECD 2002 3. 804 9/41

BRICS and selected countries: stock of patent applications, residents, 2001 Brazil Mexico Korea, Rep.

BRICS and selected countries: stock of patent applications, residents, 2001 Brazil Mexico Korea, Rep. China India Russia South Africa USA Japan World Number 6, 706 594 74, 001 30, 324 234 25, 046 175 190, 907 388, 390 939, 267 % 0. 7 0. 1 7. 9 3. 2 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 20. 3 41. 4 100. 0 10/41

 BRICS: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000) 1990 2004 2005 (D%) Brazil 6.

BRICS: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000) 1990 2004 2005 (D%) Brazil 6. 497 7. 531 7. 808 20, 2 10. 152 9. 098 9. 747 -4, 0 India 1. 701 2. 907 3. 118 83, 3 China 1. 597 5. 419 5. 878 268, 1 10. 048 10. 472 11. 044 9, 9 23. 076 29. 411 29. 997 30, 0 Russian Fed. South Africa High income: OECD 11/41

BRICS and selected countries: Gini index/ social unequality Brazil Russia India China South Africa

BRICS and selected countries: Gini index/ social unequality Brazil Russia India China South Africa Mexico Korea, Rep. USA Japan Most recent data 59. 3 31. 0 32. 5 44. 7 57. 8 54. 6 31. 6 40. 8 24. 9 Source: UNDP Is the highly unevenly distributed income a serious development problem for Brazil and South Africa? Is China increasing social unequality a problem for the future? 12/41

 BRICS: Urban population (% of total) 1995 2005 (D %) Brazil Russian Federation

BRICS: Urban population (% of total) 1995 2005 (D %) Brazil Russian Federation 74, 8 84, 2 12, 6 73, 4 73, 0 -0, 5 India 25, 5 28, 7 12, 5 China 27, 4 40, 4 47, 4 South Africa 52, 0 59, 3 14, 0 13/41

BRICS: Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (% of population) Brazil 21, 7

BRICS: Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (% of population) Brazil 21, 7 2003 Russian Federation 13, 5 2002 India 81, 3 2000 China 46, 7 2001 South Africa 34, 1 2000 14/41

BRICS portrait: population, area, density, total and per capita domestic product Population total 2004

BRICS portrait: population, area, density, total and per capita domestic product Population total 2004 thousands Brazil Area 2 km 183. 913 8. 547. 403 China* 1. 285. 342 India 1. 087. 124 Russian Federation South Africa Density inhabitants 2 per km total per capita 593. 091 3. 225 9. 560. 961 134 1. 895. 000 1. 474 3. 287. 263 331 680. 682 626 143. 899 17. 075. 400 8 582. 319 4. 047 39 212. 777 4. 507 47. 208 1. 221. 037 22 Nominal GDP 2004 * revised. Source: UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics, 2005. 15/41