REGION OF LOMBARDY RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PESTICIDE

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REGION OF LOMBARDY RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PESTICIDE INTAKE AND THE EDI / ADI

REGION OF LOMBARDY RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PESTICIDE INTAKE AND THE EDI / ADI RATIO IN THE POST MARKETING PHASE M. Ronchin^, F. Mariani^, S. Visentin^, C. Colosio^, M. Salamana*, V. Carreri* and M. Maroni^ ^ International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention, Busto Garolfo (Italy) * Prevention Unit, General Directorate of Health, Lombardy Region, Milan (Italy) Aim of study : to evaluate the dietary pesticide residue intake by the general population of the region of Lombardy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The ingestion of pesticide residue through the diet might pose a risk of long-term health effects to human health. Risk assessment for the general population is based on TMDI*, EDI°, and their comparison with the ADI^. We have applied and compared different methodologies suggested in literature for the calculation of TMDI and EDI by using the analytical data obtained through pesticide residue monitoring (post-marketing phase) carried out in Lombardy in the years 1996 -2000. * TMDI: Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake; ° EDI: Estimated Daily Intake; ^ ADI: Acceptable Daily Intake. Dietary intake estimation methodology. GUIDELINES GEOGRAPHICAL AREA METHOD OF CALCULATION FOOD MATRICES DIETARY GROUPS WHO/GEMS 1998 Europe Average daily consumption 363 adult 60 kg bw BBA 1998 Germany Average daily consumption 147 infant 13, 5 kg bw PSD/MAFF 1999 Great Britain Average daily consumption and 97, 5° percentile 117 adult 70, 1 kg; school children 43. 6 kg bw; infant 14, 5 kg; toddler 8, 7 kg INN/ISTAT 1991 Italy Average daily consumption 130 adult 60 kg bw INRAN/MIPAF 1996 Italy Average daily consumption 65 adult 60 kg bw As for the diets under study, the different approaches suggested at international level are compared, since in some cases they define models regarding different stages of the life (infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood). RESULTS The study clearly showed that the use of different variables in the calculation of the EDI/ADI ratio can significantly affect the results. EDI / ADI Ratio (Dithiocarbamates – Lombardy general population – 1996 / 2000) ANALYTICAL DATA AGE CLASS REFERENCE DIET MEAN MEDIAN 90° PERCENTILE EDI / ADI ( % ) Adult 60 kg bw INN/ISTAT 1991 5, 10 1, 97 10, 61 Adult 60 kg bw WHO/GEMS 1998 5, 24 2, 66 8, 72 School children 43, 6 kg b PSD/MAFF 1999 2, 07 1, 40 2, 96 Infant 14, 5 kg bw PSD/MAFF 1999 2, 35 1, 32 4, 44 Toddler 8, 7 kg bw PSD/MAFF 1999 6, 58 3, 87 11, 36 Number of samples: 1169 The daily intake residues, determined as carbon disulphide, were multiplied by 2 so as to convert to dithiocarbamates ADI dithiocarbamates = 0, 03 mg/kg bw (JMPR 1993) CONCLUSIONS The main problems are: • Availability of different calculation methods of TMDI and EDI; • Differences in the use of analytical data obtained in the pre marketing and post-marketing phase; • Difficulty in characterizing the diet of the general population; • Different ADI can be adopted for dithiocarbamates; Finally, laboratory analysis and quality of the analytical data are the most critical factors for a risk assessment evaluation. REFERENCES • WHO – Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues (revised). GEMS/Food, WHO, Geneva 1997 • PSD/MAFF – UK methods for the estimation of dietary intakes of pesticide residues – 1995