- Slides: 71
Reconstruction The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War
LIST AS MANY CAUSES AND EFFECTS AS YOU CAN OF THE CIVIL WAR
“Burnt Richmond” “Lincoln’s Procession” “Locomotive Ruins” in Petersburg/Richmond
EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR n n n n n Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364, 000 soldiers. The South lost 260, 000 soldiers. creation of a single unified country abolition of slavery-13 th Amendment Dec 6 th, 1865 increased power of fed. gov't U. S. now an industrial nation a stronger sense of nationalism w. lands increasingly opened to settlement a deep hatred of the North remained. . South was economically and physically devastated n n the plantation system crippled War destroyed 2/3 of South’s shipping industry + 9, 000 miles of railroad.
The struggles in the South By the end of the Civil War… n n n Black Southerners began lives as newly freedmen in a poor region with slow economic activity. Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. Poor white Southerners: job competition due to newly freedmen.
What are the BIG, KEY questions that would have to be answered following the Civil War? Now that the Union won the war, what issues are they going to be faced with?
Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? Pardon or punish? 2. How do we rebuild the South? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How do we integrate and protect newlyemancipated black freedmen?
Reconstruction n When? 1865 to 1877 By Who? The federal government will carry it out Purpose? To create a plan that would repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union.
How Lincoln tries to answer the questions n 1863 he issues the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction n n He outlined his plan on reunion y t s e n n m A rdo pa This plan was called the “ 10 Percent Plan” o t =
Lincoln’s 10% Plan In order to be “re-admitted” into the Union: n n Confederate Governments had to disband A pardon would be issued to any Confederate who would take an oath of loyalty to the United States, and accept the federal policy on slavery (which was that slavery would be abolished). Pardons denied to high-ranking Confederate officers and gov’t officials n Pardons denied to southerners who had killed African American War prisoners n
Once 10 % of 1860 eligible voters are pardoned states would then… n n hold a constitutional convention, for the purpose of creating a new state constitution (which would have to conform to the Constitution of the United States). hold elections and resume full participation in the Union. n No former leaders of Confederacy or high ranking officers could be a part of the new government **Once “readmitted”, Lincoln would protect their property, not their slaves!
Lincoln’s plan was forgiving n In Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address March, 1865, he said the following: “With malice toward none, with charity for all, . . . let us strive on to finish the work we are in, . . . to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. ”
Was Lincoln’s Plan a Success? n 1864 - 3 states under Union occupation set up governments under the plan n n Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee Once representative were chosen for Congress n CONGRESS REJECTED THEM **if re-a the n th dmitte d a rep res t state unde r Li ent w o atio n n in uld no coln’s Con t get pla n gre ss s a w ted s n a a l o w n c si n n Li sas pla on p s a u A re d o ee f be gr
Those who were unhappy with Lincoln’s Plans became known as the Radical Republicans Lincoln was too lenient on the south and the south needed to be punished n saw it as a threat to their Congressional Authority. n n It’s Congress’s job to make laws, not the president’s! Lincoln “should confine himself to his executive duties— to obey and execute, not make the laws…and leave political reorganization to Congress. ”
Thaddeus Stevens: Leading radical in the House Charles Sumner: Leading radical in the Senate They created the following plan. . .
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) « Required the majority, over 50%, of number voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). « Required a state constitutional convention. « banned former Confederates from holding public office Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD) « New state Constitutions had to accept Emancipation « Gave newly freedmen civil liberties EXCEPT the right to vote « Promised to redistribute southern land Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH)
What happened to the Wade. Davis Bill? n Lincoln let the bill die in a pocket veto. n How does a pocket veto occur? Typically, if president does not sign bill within 10 days it automatically becomes law n But…. if Congress adjourns/leaves within those 10 days and is not signed then it does not become law n
How a bill is passed Congress creates a law Congress votes on law (majority) President of U. S. Yes Veto (no) President ignores Pocket Veto 10 days Congress goes into recess bill Congress 2/3 vote override
Why use a pocket veto? Re-elections are coming up n Doesn’t get accused of saying “No” n Can’t go back to Congress for 2/3 override n
Freedmen’s Bureau n Created by Congress March, 1865 to help black and poor white southerners adjust to freedom Offers clothing, medical supplies, and food to war refugees n Built schools, offered teacher training… n n Over 250, 000 African Amer students received their first former education through the Bureau schools. Created job opportunities n redistributed additional confiscated land to former slaves and poor whites. . n n leased 40 acres could purchase later
How were things left before Lincoln was assassinated? n n No decisions were made At the end of the Civil War, in the spring of 1865… Lincoln and Congress were on the brink of a political showdown with their competing plans for Reconstruction……. and then….
Lincoln’s hopes of forgiveness end n n n Weeks after his Second Inauguration, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at the Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confed soldier plotted with others to first kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for prisoners. Failed Vice President Andrew Johnson replaced Lincoln as President
O Captain! My Captain! om/watch? v=h 9 QL 2 o 6 O 7 s 8
MAKE A T-CHART ON THE FOLLOWING AND INCLUDE 10 NOTES FOR EACH JOHNSON’S ACTIONS/BELIEFS ACTIONS CONGRESS’S/BELIEFS https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=BJLBr. D STgng
Restoration n Johnson’s plan would grant amnesty to most Southerners once they swore loyalty to the Union n High-ranking Confederates could be pardoned only by appealing to the president…why? Could hold constitutional conventions without Lincoln’s 10%-no requirement States could hold elections and rejoin Union if… n denounced secession n And ratified the 13 th amendment (Abolished slavery in the US) n AND repudiate(reject) Confederate debt n John stated “white men alone must manage the South n Johnson opposed equal rights for African Americans
Under Johnson’s Administration n HE: Believed “white men alone must manage the South n Opposed equal rights for African Americans n n As State Governments were restored… n Confederates recently pardoned quickly passed laws severely restricting African Americans newly found freedom. n This allowed….
Black Codes n n Enacted black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these:
Black Codes: to regulate social & economic lives CAN Marry Blacks Ø Sue in court Ø Own property Ø Go to school Ø CANNOT Serve on a jury Ø Carry a weapon Ø Testify against Whites Ø Marry Whites Ø Stay out after sunset Ø Travel w/o permit Ø Own a business Ø Commit Vagrancy Ø Live in urban areas Ø
Northern Republicans in Congress ANGERED by Codes n n Mad that southerners defied goal of Reconstruction Blamed President Johnson for the return of southern democratic power
Powers Congress used to change this problem 1) 2) Amended the constitution. If vetoed by Johnson, they would override it!
Civil Rights Bill of 1866 1. Give Blacks citizenship 2. Forbid the passing of discriminatory laws --This outlawed THE BLACK CODES--
Congress Breaks with the President « Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. « February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. « March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. « Congress overrides Johnson’s vetoes! Passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!!
The Fourteenth Amendment n Ratifed July 1868, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which states: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States…are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges… of citizens of the United States… nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law …” n Made protection of Civil Rights part of the Constitution
Johnson’s Response n n Continued to oppose equal rights for African Americans. Urged states not to ratify the 14 th Amendment
Angry Northern Voters Respond to Johnson’s Stupidity Johnson is going down…. n n Elect Radical Republicans into office Now Radicals could put their own Reconstruction Plans into action!
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 called for “reform not revenge, ” passed by the Radicals in Congress. These were its key provisions: 1. Put Southern states under military rule 2. Southern states would have to create new state constitutions. 3. Suffrage for all men 4. Supporters of the Confederacy were temporarily barred from voting. 5. Southern states were required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. 6. All states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Split up South into 5 military districts
Quiz You may use your notes from yesterday! n n n Fill in circle labeled 1 with points about Lincoln’s Plan Fill in circle labeled 2 with points about Radical Reconstruction Plan Fill in circle labeled 3 with points about Johnson’s Plan
Important men Johnson better watch out for n n n Thaddeus Stevens: a Pennsylvania Congressman, led the Radical charge that would threaten to bring down Johnson. Charles Sumner: Founder of the Republicans and sought voting right for all blacks. Edwin Stanton: Secretary of War and friends of the Radicals, would control military rule over the south
Bad Mr. President n n In response to the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and not wanting a Radical to control the South, Johnson fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, without Senate consent n Went against the Tenure of Office Act passed by congress in 1867 which places limits on the President’s powers of who he can hire and fire b/c he needed Senate approval February 24, 1868 with of vote of 126 to 47, Johnson was impeached - charged with wrongdoing in the office –-by the House of Representatives.
The Senate Trial « 11 week trial. « Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3 s vote).
“He won the battle but lost the war” n n Johnson served the remaining months of his term with no mandate and no real power. In the following election of 1868, he was defeated by Ulysses S. Grant.
The Fifteenth Amendment + Impact n n In February 1869, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment, granting African American males the right to vote. Ratified March 1870 Once again due to angry white southern voters staying home: n In 1870, southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time. n More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislature n Louisiana gained a black governor n Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American elected to the Senate.
The Republican South n n n During Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was split into two groups who both wanted to prosper in the south. ***Earned these nicknames from former Confederates who despised them for supporting Republicans Carpetbaggers Scalawags Northern Republicans who (“scrawny cattle”). moved South n White southern Republicans Nickname came from arriving were seen as traitors and with a cheap suitcase made called from carpet scraps. n Supported Reconstruction Carpetbaggers were often n Some were small farmers depicted as greedy men who resented the planter seeking to grab power or class. make a fast buck. n Many scalawags, but not all, were poor.
SCALAWAGS Southernern Republicans Wanted to end Slavery Wanted to Industrialize Considered Traitors Wanted to get Elected CARPETBAGGERS Northernern Republicans Liked the warm Climate Looking for Adventure Wanted to start Business Wanted to end Slavery
With the end of slavery, what would happen to southern agriculture?
Sharecropping n The most common new farming arrangement Sharecropping family would farm a portion of planter’s land n As payment, the family was promised a share of the crop n Planter usually provided housing n n The bad and the ugly: planters could evict sharecroppers, some charged for housing. n Sharecroppers were stuck until paid off debt
Economic Reorganization of the New South of the 1870 s
Tenant farming n n If a sharecropper could save enough money, he could then become a Tenant farmer! Rented land could grow what he wanted
SHARECROPPING TENANT FARMING n Work on a portion n Rented land of planter’s land n Kept all of the yield n Keep 1/3 -1/2 of yield n Chose which crops n Provided food, to plant shelter, clothing, seeds, and farm n Chose when they equipment at a wanted to work price
Changes in Farming in the South led to… n Emphasis on Cash Crops: Sharecropping and tenant farming encouraged planters to grow cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane. The South had to import much of its food. n The rise of a new class: Tenant farming created a class of wealthy merchants who sold supplies on credit. n Landlords would force their tenants to buy from their store.
Could the South be like the Industrialized North? ? ? n Southern cities did become more industrialized One problem: southern factories handled the earlier, less profitable stages of manufacturing. n The items were shipped north to be made into finished products and sold. n n Ex: Cotton: The value in SC went from 713, 000 in 1860 to 3 mill in 1880 n BUT the big profit went to the northern factories who died the fabric and sold the finished product.
Funding Reconstruction n The South’s Need: Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses, n n Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines public school systems by 1872. n How to fulfill that need: Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt. n Much of this big spending was lost to corruption. The corruption became so widespread that it even reached the White House.
Secret Societies Form
Terrorism emerges The Ku Klux Klan emerges n n n In 1866 a group of former Confederate soldiers of Pulaski, TN formed a secret society. Named Ku Klux Klan after the Greek word “Klukos” meaning circle. Dressed in masks and robes to symbolize the dead confederate soldiers who returned from the dead in search of their enemies of the south.
Ku Klux Klan n GOAL: n Opposed unions and supported prohibition “felt threatened by changes in American society” In 1868 killed 1000 just from Louisiana. n n to keep out “foreigners”
1867 -elected Nathan Bedford Forrest as leader
LYNCHING 1880 – 1950 = 5, 000 killed with 70% being Black 1880 = 23 people every 2 ½ days Heaviest in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Lousiana and Arkansas – What do they all have in common? Not restricted to South – for example: Zacharia Walker 1911 – Coatesville, PA
Enforcement Act of 1870 n At Grant’s request, Congress passed Anti. KKK laws that banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting bc of their race
The end of Reconstruction n After being re-elected in 1872, Grant tries to continue reconstruction in the South but by the mid-1800 s it dies bc… Corruption in Republican Party n Taking a toll on the economy n White Resistance/Violence n Democrats come to power n n The Amnesty Act of 1872: all but 500 ex-confeds were pardoned and given the right to vote and hold office. They combine with other white southerners and form the Democratic Party of the Solid South
Enforcement Acts … to stop the Secret Societies 1. Federal supervision of elections 2. Pres. to declare martial law in areas of Klan ** Freedmen’s Bureau dies out… ** The Klan dies out. . . But then, the Amnesty Act Redemption begins
Hayes (R) vs. Tilden (D) 1876 • • • Dispute over 4 states D. scared away R. voters R. threw away D. votes Polls showed Hayes won Should have been Tilden Hayes could remain in office if…
Compromise of 1877 n n n Remove remaining federal troops from South Support appropriations for building levees along Mississippi River and give huge subsidies to railrd Marked the end of Reconstruction, giving Democrats control of Southern politics
Many people question whether or not Reconstruction was a success or a failure? n n n What were the successes? What were the failures? Do you think Reconstruction was more of a success or failure?
Two goals of Reconstruction n Unify the North and South n Equality for Freedmen Where these goals achieved? ? ?
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Lincoln’s plan Reconstruction Plans * Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners. * Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance * States could * Permitted each then hold state to create a new constitution elections and rejoin after 10 percent of the Union. voters took an oath of allegiance. Johnson’s plan * Each state could create a new constitution without Lincoln’s 10 percent allegiance requirement. * States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the Confederate debt.