- Slides: 64
Reconstruction The Failed Experiment (1865 – 1877 – Hayes/Tilden)
The freedmen • • • Immediate response? Tested freedom Demands: Land – forty acres – “placed on land until we are able to buy it and make it our own” Live apart – separate churches fraternal organizations etc. Military protection The franchise’ importance – For freemen? – For republicans?
Traditional Southern Whites “Bourbons, ” Redeemers, Democrats • “not conquered, but only overpowered””I’m glad I fought agin her, I only wish we’d won, And I ain’t axed any pardon for anything I’ve done” • State regulation of the ballot – limited suffrage • Immediate representation and restoration • Resistance to emancipation
Lincoln’s Plan • “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace…” • The states had not seceded therefore no role for congress. • Pushed for 13 th Amendment (January 1865) • The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction - 1863 – 10% pledged allegiance and support of emancipation – Strengths? – Weaknesses?
Radical Republicans • No immediate restoration until states reconstructed – “conquered rebels at the mercy of the conquerors” • Need to “secure the civil rights of all citizens” “exclusion of… those whose crimes have proved them to be enemies of the Union. ” • “the almighty continued Mr. Lincoln in office as long as he was useful and then substituted a better man. ” • Wade Davis: – Congress: states committed suicide, therefore they would readmit them – 50% of eligible voters must swear an ironclad oath of allegiance. Until this number reached military occupation pocket veto • Freedmen’s Bureau(March 1865) – welfare agency headed by Howard
• Warmup: – Scan and skim. “Carl Schurz reports southern defiance” (page 504 – 505) “General Grant is optimistic” (page 506) and “emancipation violence in Texas” (509). – Prepare to explain whether the south was ready for the terms of easy reconstruction proposed by Lincoln and Johnson. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE SPECIFIC EVIDENCE! • 1850 s Assignment (posted in grade book). If you think that you can do better, you may retake the quiz. Your two possibilities are Friday right after school or during SMART lunch. – To do this you must redo the entire assignment. Full credit can be earned.
Freedmens’ Bureau – successful in providing funds for education but no so successful in providing land. controversial
• Warmup: – What does the cartoon on your desk tell us about why reconstruction was unsuccessful in changing the status of African Americans in the South?
Andrew Johnson Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters! • Pardon for all who take oath, except for the wealthy and those with high positions who needed presidential pardon • States needed to repeal secession ordinances, repudiate war debt, and ratify the 13 th. • All states quickly complied Success?
Easy Reconstruction? • Southern representation to congress in 1865 = CSA VP, 4 generals, the old elite • Black codes (1865 – 1866)= – Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. – Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. – Seen by RR as betrayal • Riots • Fears of the north: republican program undone (more southern representation), blacks might move north!, the point of the war?
• Answer a, b, and c using the image to the right. – A. Briefly explain the point of view expressed through the image about one of the following: emancipation, political participation, citizenship – B. Briefly explain one outcome of the civil war that led to the historical change depicted. – C. Briefly explain one way in which the historical change you explained in part b was challenged between 1866 and
Congress Breaks with the President « Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. « Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. « February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. « March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. « Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!!
14 th Amendment « Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. « Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
Radical Reconstruction. 1866 Election of Veto Proof Congress • Reconstruction Act of 1867 – Invalidated all new state governments – Divided south into 5 districts under military commanders • Seemingly a violation of ex parte Milligan – States must approve 14 th amendment and give blacks voting rights – Sumner’s plan of redistricting land too radical
Johnson and impeachment! • Johnson sent only conservative generals south • Tenure in Office Act by RR to protect Stanton • Johnson fired Stanton • Impeachment yes, conviction no by one vote
Radical Reconstruction • Temporary government by the Union League, Republicans and Freedmen – (or scalawags and carpetbaggers) – Military support for black voters; black codes undone by 14 th Amendment – New state constitutions which granted universal male suffrage – Blacks voted and held office – although in no state did they elect a governor and in only one state did they control a house of the legislature (2 black Senators –Revels and Bruce)
Black & White Political Participation
Radical Reconstruction Continued • Progressive legislation – schools “raceless and classless” in SC, public works, property rights for women, no debt imprisonment, rebuilt infrastructure – Whites did not attend black schools for the most part but F. Douglass pointed out separate schools “infinitely superior to no schools – Existence of corruption but this was the era of “good stealings” • Important Amendments passed that established standards that would later be reached
Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South
15 th Amendment (1870) • 15 th – no discrimination in regard to voting on basis or “race, color or condition of previous servitude” – many other reasons that it can be restricted. • Election of 1868 demonstrated its necessity to Republicans • Stanton and Anthony’s appeal rejected
• Warmup: Quickly answer questions 1 – 13 on your own paper. • Homework: DBQ Wednesday ! Test Friday! You must bring the rubric with you to write the DBQ.
Limited Progress for Freedmen • Reconstruction was unfinished business – Eventual and gradual loss of voting rights. – Blacks remained poor. No redistribution of land. – Sharecropping • Preferred to contract system • Less than 10% owned land by 1880 • a trap “a man who did not know how to count would always surely lose. ” • Crop liens
• Few skilled jobs – in 1865, 50% of skilled jobs held by blacks by 1870, 30%, by 1910, 8% • Growing segregation Jim Crow laws and practices as second generation of freedmen looked to integration – Civil Rights Cases (1883) – allowed private discrimination – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – public discrimination
1. Look at the 1871 cartoon, “Murder of Louisiana. ” 1. Explain the cartoon. Be sure to explain “ulysses”, “Radicalism”, the audience 2. What is the point of the cartoonist? Was it drawn by a radical republican or a moderate? 2. Look at the cartoon dated 10/24/1874 1. 2. 3. 4. Explain the figures. What is the point of the cartoon? What has happened by 1874 according to the cartoonist? Who is the cartoonist?
• The End of Reconstruction - The New South - achieved through the violence (Mississippi Plan) or majority rule IGNORED BY PRESIDENTS AFTER GRANT! • Sharecropping: freedmen were economically powerless • Gradual disenfranchisement! – poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses pegged to 1866 – goal was democratic control (protect interests of elite) – Race was used to keep whites voting democratic. The limited black vote was not a threat. – Solid south = Democrats until after world war II. • Southern interest protected by democrats as 2/3 of the party was necessary for any decision
• Attempt to reestablish southern culture and social customs • In the northern south, redemption occurred because whites outnumbered blacks. • The Mississippi Plan (or NC) in places where there was no white majority = terrorism – Use of violence to carry elections. Armed struggle around election time year after year. Civil wars! • Blacks and Union League targeted – “carry the election peacefully if we can, forcefully if we must. ” – “Bewar, ” “every man must stand his post. ” a state senator stabbed. 13, 000 fewer votes in 1870 than in 1868 in NC – New legislatures wrote more discriminatory laws – literacy tests, poll taxes Redeemers
Redemption Ignored • Loss of republican interest - The attorney general stated in 1874 “the whole public are tired out with these autumnal outbreaks in the south. Preserve the peace by the forces of your own state. ” • Ku Klux Klan or Force Acts ignored – important radicals died – Frustration with Grant and corruption – “liberal” republicans opposed ineffective southern governments, hoped to see governments returned to “capable” leaders – Desire for a disciplined southern workforce – Social Darwinism
The “Invisible Empire of the South”
1876 Presidential Tickets
The Political Crisis of 1877 « “Corrupt Bargain” Part II?
Hayes – Tilden (1876) • Tilden (D) won the popular vote and had electoral votes but FL, GA, and LA – contested returns. Which to count? – If by the president of the senate, Hayes would win – If by the speaker of the house, Tilden would win – Electoral commission: unhappy democrats pledged filibuster
Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
Compromise of 1877 • Hayes wins Presidency! • Democrats win – all troops out of the south, a southern railroad and jobs for democrats • Hayes, “rights and interests would be safer” if southern whites were “let alone by the general government” • One year later “by state legislation, by fraud by intimidation and violence, blacks have lost the right to suffrage. ” nothing done.
Disenfranchisement in NC • The ideal of an interracial party to protect the interests of the poor (1890 s)– populists and in NC, the fusion party. • A nightmare to the elite. Newspapers condemned the idea, “socialists and adventurers…shamelessly allied with a race of brutal savages and barbarians”
The Coup of 1898
• Warmup: On your own paper, do not mark on the documents, take notes on the documents provided that would aid you writing a response to the DBQ prompt. • Homework: Study for exam.
1898 • White supremacy campaigns of 1898 – Use of newspapers – White vigilantes – Wilmington Pogrom 1898 defeat of Fusion Party and election of Democrats • Majority black city (11 k – 8 k) • “go to the polls tomorrow, if you find the Negro out voting, tell him to leave the polls, and if he refuses, kill him, shoot him down in his tracks. ” • Following election AA newspaper office burned, repeating rifles used to drive AAs into swamp, 2000 fled, maybe 300 dead • “we have taken a city” Nand. O – ‘permanent good government by the party of the white man. ”
• • Please send releif [sic] as soon as possible. or we perish. Wilmington N. C. Nov 13, 1898 Wm Mc. Kinley: — President of the United States of America, Hon- Sir, I a Negro woman of this City appeal to you from the depths of my heart, to do something in the Negro’s behalf. The outside world only knows one side of the trouble here, there is no paper to tell the truth about the Negro here, or in this or any other Southern state. The Negro in this town had no arms, (except pistols perhaps in some instances) with which to defend themselves from the attack of lawless whites. On the 10 th Thursday morning between eight and nine o clock, when our Negro men had gone to their places of work, the white men led by Col. A. M. Waddell, Jno. D. Bellamy, & S. H. Fishblate marched from the Light Infantry armory on Market st. to Seventh down seventh to Love & Charity Hall (which was owned by a society of Negroes and where the Negro daily press was. ) and set it afire & burnt it up And firing Guns Winchesters. They also had a Hotchkiss gun & two Colt rapid fire guns. We the negro expected nothing of the kind as they (the whites) had frightened them from the polls by saying they would be there with their shot guns. So the few that did vote did so quietly. And we thought after giving up to them and they carried the state it was settled. But they or Jno. D. Bellamy told them [illegible words] in addition to the guns they already had they could keep back federal interference. And he could have the Soldiers at Ft. Caswell to take up arms against the United States. After destroying the building they went over in Brooklyn another Negro settlement mostly, and began searching every one and if you did not submit, [you] would be shot down on the spot. They searched all the Negro Churches. And to day (Sunday) we dare not go to our places of worship. They found no guns or amunition in any of the places, for there was none. And to satisfy their Blood thirsty appetites would kill unoffending Negro men to or on their way from dinner. Some of our most worthy [illegible] Negro Men have been made to leave the City. Also some Whites, G. Z. French, Deputy Sheriff, Cheif of police, Jno. R. Melton, Dr. S. P. Wright, Mayor, and R. H. Bunting, united states commissioner. We don’t know where Mr. Chadbourn the Post Master is, and two or three others white. I call on you the head of the American Nation to help these humble subjects. We are loyal we go when duty calls us. And are we to die like rats in a trap? With no place to seek redress or to go with our Greiveances?
• • • Can we call on any other Nation for help? Why do you forsake the Negro? Who is not to blame for being here. This Grand Noble Nation who flies to the help of suffering humanity of another Nation? And leave the Secessionists and born Rioters to slay us. Oh, that we had never seen the light of the world. When our parents belonged to them, why, the Negro was all right. Now, when they work and accumalate [sic] property they are all wrong. The Negroes that have been banished are all property owners to considerable extent, had they been worthless negroes, we would not care. Will you for God sake in your next message to Congress give us some releif [sic] If you send us all to Africa on we will be willing or a number of us will gladly go. Is this the land of the free and the home of the brave? How can the Negro Sing My Country tis of Thee? For Humanity’s sake help us. For Christ sake do. We the Negro can do nothing but pray. There seems to be no help for us. No paper will tell the truth about the Negro. The Men of the 1 st North Carolina were home on a furlough and they took a high hand in the nefarious work also. The Companies from every little town came in to kill the negro. There was not any Rioting Simply the strong slaying the weak. They speak of special police every white Man and boy from 12 years up had a gun or pistol, and the Negro had nothing, but his soul he could not say was his own. Oh, to see how we are Slaughtered, when our husbands go to work we do not look for their return. The Man who promises the Negro protection now as Mayor is the one who in his speech at the Opera house said the Cape Fear should be strewn with carcasses. Some papers I see, say it was right to eject the Negro editor That is all right but why should a whole city full of negroes suffer for Manly when he was hundred of miles away? And the paper had ceased publication. We were glad it was so for our own safety. But they tried to slay us all. To day we are mourners in a strange land with no protection near. God help us. Do something to alleviate our sorrows if you please. I cannot sign my name and live. But every word of this is true. The laws of our state is no good for the negro anyhow. Yours in much distress Wilmington NC
• Charles Aycock, a leader in the 1898 Wilmington race riot - easily won the state's gubernatorial election of 1900, and proceeded to implement a plan to amend the North Carolina constitution to disenfranchise black voters. - Poll tax and literacy test. Whites exempt (grandfather and understanding clauses) - "There shall be no progress in the South for either race until the [black man] is removed permanently from the political process. "
• "These are some of the reasons for my being proud of North Carolina. I am proud of my State, moreover, because there we have solved the Negro problem. We have taken him out of politics and have thereby secured good government under any party and laid foundations for the future development of both races. We have secured peace and rendered prosperity a certainty. I am inclined to give to you our solution of this problem. It is, first, as far as possible under the Fifteenth Amendment to disfranchise him; after that let him alone… Let the Negro learn once for all that there is an unending separation of the races, that the two peoples may develop side by side to the fullest but that they cannot intermingle; let the white man determine that no man shall by act or though or speech cross this line, and the race problem will be at an end. These things are not said in enmity to the Negro but in regard for him. He constitutes onethird of the population of my State: he has always been my personal friend. But there flows in my veins the blood of the dominant race; that race that has conquered the earth and seeks out the mysteries of the heights and the depths. If manifest destiny leads to the seizure of Panama, it is certain that it likewise leads to the dominance of the Caucasian. When the Negro recognizes this fact we shall have peace and good will between the races. “ Charles Aycock
Constitutional Amendment -1899 (NC) • • Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language; and, before he shall be entitled to vote, he shall have paid, on or before the first day of March of the year in which he proposes to vote, his poll tax, as prescribed by law, for the previous year. Poll taxes shall be a lien only on assessed property, and no process shall issue to enforce the collection of the same, except against assessed property. Sec. 5. No male person, who was on January 1, 1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws of any State in the United States wherein he then resided, and no lineal descendant of any such person; shall be denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifications prescribed in section 4 of this Article: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance with the terms of this section prior to Dec. 1, 1908.
• Part 1. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death. resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice. President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. Part 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction Part 3. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. Part 4. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction
INSTRUCTION "C" • • • (After applicant has read, not aloud, the foregoing excerpts from the Constitution, he will answer the following questions in writing and without assistance: ) In case the president is unable to perform the duties of his office, who assumes them? ___________ "Involuntary servitude" is permitted in the United States upon conviction of a crime. (True or False)______ If a state is a party to a case, the Constitution provides that original jurisdiction shall be in_________ Congress passes laws regulating cases which are included in those over which the United States Supreme Court has______________ jurisdiction. I hereby certify that I have received no assistance in the completion of this citizenship and literacy test, that I was allowed the time I desired to complete it, and that I waive any right existing to demand a copy of same. (If for any reason the applicant does not wish to sign this, he must discuss the matter with the board of registrars. ) Signed: ______________________ (Applicant)
Booker T. Washington (1856 -1915) • Born in Virginia, a former slave, • Atlanta Compromise Speech (1895)—work first, rights later – “Cast down your bucket where you are. ” – “in all things social we can be as separate as the five fingers. ” (most people interpreted as an accommodationist) • Tuskegee Institute • Invited to White House – celebrated by many in white community • Actively challenged Alabama’s 1901 Constitution which disfranchised blacks and provided funds for Du. Bois.
W. E. B. Du. Bois (1868 -1963) • Born in tolerant western Massachusetts community • Highly critical of Washington for his views—promoted Civil Rights immediately and the Talented Tenth. • Helped form NAACP by combining his Niagara Movement with others interested in Civil Rights. – Blacks and progressive whites • Eventually - emigrated to Ghana - in 1961 he renounced his American Citizenship.
Ida B. Wells (1862 -1931) • Journalist and Educator in Memphis – Newspaper was called Free Speech, a black newspaper • Had to expatriate to New York • Led nationwide Anti. Lynching Crusade
Quiz – 15 minutes Turn papers over when finished. 1. Explain the most important provisions of the 13, 14, and 15 amendments. 2. What was the deal made by Congressional Republicans and Democrats to resolve the disputed election of 1876? 3. What were two scandals that are associated with the Grant administration? 4. What were the stalwarts and half-breeds?
Warm-up: Contrast the two cartoons on your desk. What is represented? How do the cartoons illustrate the history of reconstruction? • August 1865 “Franchise and Not this man? ” • August 1868 “This is a white man’s government”
Responses to the New South Complete thoroughly. 1. 2. 3. Carefully summarize the manner in which African Americans should pursue change according to Booker T. Washington. What does he want for freedmen? What is he willing to forgo? What is sought by W. E. B. Du. Bois? How is this different from Washington’s program? Du. Bois was from Massachusetts. Washington was from the Deep South. Does this help explain the differences in the goals and strategies suggested?