Reconstruction Post Civil War 1865 1877 Civil Rights

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Reconstruction Post Civil War 1865 -1877 Civil Rights

Reconstruction Post Civil War 1865 -1877 Civil Rights

Reconstruction Focus Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What group made up the

Reconstruction Focus Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African Americans changed during reconstruction. What is meant by the phrase “ 40 acres and a mule”? What were the goals of the KKK? What were the failures of Reconstruction? What were the successes of Reconstruction?

Important Vocabulary for Reconstruction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Important Vocabulary for Reconstruction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Thirteenth Amendment Andrew Johnson Reconstruction Radical Republicans Freedman’s Bureau Black codes Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Scalawags Carpetbaggers 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Hiram Revels Sharecropping Tenant Farming Ku Klux Klan Redemption Rutherford B. Hayes Compromise of 1877

Lincoln’s Assassination Five days after the Civil War ended, Lincoln was assassinated while watching

Lincoln’s Assassination Five days after the Civil War ended, Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC. n His assassin was John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Southern sympathizer. n Booth escaped and was found days later in a barn. n Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated. n Vice President Andrew Johnson became President. n

Reconstruction n Reconstruction was the time period after the Civil War in which the

Reconstruction n Reconstruction was the time period after the Civil War in which the nation was rebuilt, especially the South n The South was physically, economically, and politically destroyed. n What would all of these freed slaves do?

Radical Republicans During Reconstruction, a group called the Radical Republicans controlled Congress. Thaddeus Stevens

Radical Republicans During Reconstruction, a group called the Radical Republicans controlled Congress. Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner led this group. n They wanted to destroy the power of former slaveholders. n n They wanted African Americans to have full citizenship, including suffrage (the right to vote).

th 13 n n n Amendment Outlawed slavery in America: First Civil Rights law

th 13 n n n Amendment Outlawed slavery in America: First Civil Rights law Many former slaves were reunited with their families. Many became sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Sharecroppers: farmers who worked someone else’s land & gave at least ½ of the profit to the landowner at harvest time. People in the North called sharecropping the “continuation of slavery”. Tenant Farmers: Rented the land kept the profit from the harvest.

Andrew Johnson (1865 -1869) 17 th President, became president after Lincoln’s assassination. A southern

Andrew Johnson (1865 -1869) 17 th President, became president after Lincoln’s assassination. A southern Democrat that promoted states rights from Tennessee. Planned the reconstruction of the south that required southerners to pledge allegiance to the Union Was impeached for breaking the Oath of Tenure, escaped a guilty verdict by one vote.

How to implement Reconstruction? n Different groups had different ideas on how to rebuild.

How to implement Reconstruction? n Different groups had different ideas on how to rebuild. n Was the Executive Branch or the Legislative Branch in charge of Reconstruction?

Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Reconstruction Plan Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Describe the Plan The

Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Reconstruction Plan Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Describe the Plan The government would pardon all confederates who swore allegiance to the Union, except high ranking officials n After 10% of those who voted in 1860 took the oath & wrote a Constitution, they could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress n

Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Johnson’s Plan n Each confederate

Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Johnson’s Plan n Each confederate state could (Presidential be readmitted to the Union if it Reconstruction) would meet several conditions Each would have to withdraw its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the 13 th Amendment. n

Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Reconstruction n Divided

Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Reconstruction n Divided the confederate states into 5 military districts, each headed by a Union Act of 1867 (Congressional general. Reconstruction) n The voters in the districts (including blacks) would elect delegates to conventions in which new state constitutions would be drafted n In order to reenter the Union, state constitutions had to ensure that black men could vote & the state had to ratify the 14 th Amendment

Freedmen’s Bureau During Reconstruction, Congress approved the passage of the Freedmen’s Bureau. n It

Freedmen’s Bureau During Reconstruction, Congress approved the passage of the Freedmen’s Bureau. n It assisted former slaves and poor Southern whites by distributing food and clothes, and establishing hospitals, teacher training programs, schools, and industrial institutions. n

Carpetbaggers were Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction to take advantage of

Carpetbaggers were Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction to take advantage of the turmoil in the South n Many came for humanitarian reasons, like to be teachers or to work for the Freedmen’s Bureau n Some came to start businesses and take advantage of Southern poverty n

Scalawags were Southerners who became members of the Republican party n Southerners were Democrats

Scalawags were Southerners who became members of the Republican party n Southerners were Democrats during the Civil War n To become a member of the Republican party meant you were a traitor n

Important Reconstruction Legislation n Civil Rights Act of 1866 - gave African Americans citizenship

Important Reconstruction Legislation n Civil Rights Act of 1866 - gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws (called black codes) 14 th Amendment- made all people born or naturalized in the U. S. citizens. Also gave citizens equal protection under the law 15 th Amendment- no one could be denied the right to vote because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

Conflict between the President and Congress n n With the passage of the Reconstruction

Conflict between the President and Congress n n With the passage of the Reconstruction Act of 1867, Congress was in charge of implementing Reconstruction. Andrew Johnson did not agree that Congress should be in charge. Johnson fired the Secretary of War, who was a Radical Republican. This violated the Tenure in Office Act, which limited the power of the President to hire & fire government officials. (Loophole: Lincoln had appointed the Sec. of War).

Johnson Impeached Led by Radical Republican, Thaddeus Steven, Congress voted to impeach Johnson. n

Johnson Impeached Led by Radical Republican, Thaddeus Steven, Congress voted to impeach Johnson. n He was found not guilt by one vote. n Johnson did not run for re-election. n

Ulysses S. Grant becomes President (1869 -1877) Former Union General, Ulysses S. Grant, was

Ulysses S. Grant becomes President (1869 -1877) Former Union General, Ulysses S. Grant, was elected President of the United States. n He was a good general, but not a good politician. n His administration was plagued with corruption. n

Democrats Come to Power n With the efforts of the KKK, the Democrats came

Democrats Come to Power n With the efforts of the KKK, the Democrats came to power again in the South. n This time period is known as “Redemption”. n Democrats controlled the state governments in the South. n They also gained power in Congress.

Compromise of 1877 n n The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction. In the election

Compromise of 1877 n n The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction. In the election of 1876, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote. Instead of the Democrats making a big issue out of the election results, they made a deal with the Republicans. The Democrats would allow Hayes to stay President, if the Republicans would pull the military out of the South.

Rutherford B. Hayes Republican from Ohio 1. 19 th President, 18771881 2. oversaw the

Rutherford B. Hayes Republican from Ohio 1. 19 th President, 18771881 2. oversaw the end of Reconstruction 3. began the efforts that led to civil service reform 4. attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War.

What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? African American men who could

What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? African American men who could vote for the first time

Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African Americans changed during reconstruction. 1.

Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African Americans changed during reconstruction. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Searched for loved ones Went to school Able to hold paying jobs Established churches Could travel freely They could run for political office & vote

Hiram Rhodes Revels 1 st African American Senator: election overturned Dred Scott decision that

Hiram Rhodes Revels 1 st African American Senator: election overturned Dred Scott decision that stated that African Americans could not be citizens (1857)—filled vacant Senate seat 18701871 Radical Republican represented Mississippi Born Free to Free parents in North Carolina Chaplain to Maryland Black Regiment in the Civil War

What is meant by the phrase “ 40 acres and a mule”? n n

What is meant by the phrase “ 40 acres and a mule”? n n n General Sherman promised freed slaves who followed his army 40 acres per family and use of an army mule Some actually received this as payment Today, this has come to imply that African Americans deserve payment (reparations) for the work their ancestors did for this country as slaves

What were the goals of the KKK? n n n To restore white supremacy

What were the goals of the KKK? n n n To restore white supremacy To prohibit African Americans from exercising their rights as citizens * To terrorize those who wanted progress for African Americans

What were the failures of Reconstruction? n n Discrimination and racist attitudes still existed

What were the failures of Reconstruction? n n Discrimination and racist attitudes still existed Jim Crow laws established (segregation laws; laws that separated the races) Examples: literacy tests, poll taxes, Grandfather clause

What were the successes of Reconstruction? n n The 13 th, 14 th, 15

What were the successes of Reconstruction? n n The 13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments gave rights to African Americans established churches, schools, and civic organizations

Jim Crow Era 1877 -1954 Military districts disolved Continuate of Black Code Laws, now

Jim Crow Era 1877 -1954 Military districts disolved Continuate of Black Code Laws, now called Jim Crow Laws Forced Segregation in the South Made Lawful by Plessy vs. Ferguson

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 1. Homer A. Plessy Vs. John H. Ferguson—Plessy was of

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 1. Homer A. Plessy Vs. John H. Ferguson—Plessy was of Creole decent. 2. Bought a first class ticket to ride in a whites only rail car. Was arrested and Took case to the Supreme Court. 3. US Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of segregation 4. Separate but equal—vote upheld 7 to 1 5. Considered one of the worst decisions in Supreme Court history 6. Has never been explicitly overruled, but later challenged in regard to schools and educational opportunities (de facto overruled) Gave legal permission for the Jim Crow Era to continue and the return of The Ku Klux Klan in the 1900’s. Rise of hate crimes against African Americans: Terrorism, Lynching, Rape, Discrimination, Institutionalized Racism