RECONSTRUCTION CH 4 Section 4 Reconstruction 1865 1877

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RECONSTRUCTION CH 4 Section 4

RECONSTRUCTION CH 4 Section 4

Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 • Period of rebuilding the United States after the Civil

Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 • Period of rebuilding the United States after the Civil War – How to bring Confederate states back into the Union? – What to do with former slaves? • Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Congress all had different ideas

Lincoln’s Plan • Lenient policy • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction • Gov’t pardon

Lincoln’s Plan • Lenient policy • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction • Gov’t pardon for all Confederates – Except high ranking officials and those accused of war crimes against prisoners • Pardoned only if allegiance sworn to Union • 10% Plan – 10% of voters in 1860 election swear allegiance – Confederate state could be readmitted and set up new state gov’t – Then could send reps to Congress • AR, LA, TN, VA readmitted

 • Radical Republicans angered – Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens

• Radical Republicans angered – Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens (PA) – Wanted to destroy political power of former slaveholders – Wanted to give full citizenship and voting rights to African Americans

Johnson’s Plan • Lincoln assassinated at Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth • Differed

Johnson’s Plan • Lincoln assassinated at Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth • Differed little from Lincoln’s plan • Major difference: – Excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from taking the 10% oath • Pardoned 13, 000 Confederates b/c “white men alone must manage the South” • Seven remaining states quickly agreed, except TX • Elected reps and sent to Congress

 • Congress refused new S. reps when they arrived to take seats •

• Congress refused new S. reps when they arrived to take seats • Moderate Republicans pushed new laws to combat Johnson’s weak plan – Enlarge Freedman’s Bureau – Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Granted citizenship • forbade “black codes” • Johnson vetoed acts – “beyond anything “contemplated by the authors of the Constitution”

Congressional Reconstruction • Johnson’s vetoes overridden by Congress • Drafted 14 th Amendment –

Congressional Reconstruction • Johnson’s vetoes overridden by Congress • Drafted 14 th Amendment – Prevented states from denying rights/privileges to U. S. citizens – “all persons born or naturalized in the U. S. ” • Republicans gained control of Congress • Reconstruction Act of 1867 passed – Divided confederate states into 5 military districts – States required to grant A. A. voting rights / ratify 14 th Amendment – Then they could reenter the Union • Johnson vetoed legislation – veto overridden

Johnson’s Impeachment • Radicals thought Johnson was blocking Reconstruction legislation • Looking to impeach

Johnson’s Impeachment • Radicals thought Johnson was blocking Reconstruction legislation • Looking to impeach him • Johnson removed Sec. of War, Edwin Stanton – Grounds for impeachment under Tenure of Office Act • House impeached but Senate did not convict • Grant elected in 1868

Politics in Postwar South • Republican gov’ts in South conflicted – Scalawags – white

Politics in Postwar South • Republican gov’ts in South conflicted – Scalawags – white Southerners who joined the Rep. party. Few committed to civil rights for blacks. – Carpetbaggers – northerners who moved to the South after the war – African Americans – wanted to exercise their voting rights but couldn’t read or write • Differing goals led to lack of unity

Why It Didn’t Work… • Southerners frustrated – Some refused to register to vote

Why It Didn’t Work… • Southerners frustrated – Some refused to register to vote – Vigilante groups created • Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – Goals • • destroy Republican Party Throw out Reconstruction governments Aid planter class Prevent African Americans from exercising political rights – Killed 20, 000 people

 • Other national crisis’ drew federal gov’t attention • Hayes elected Pres. In

• Other national crisis’ drew federal gov’t attention • Hayes elected Pres. In 1876 – Federal troops withdrawn from South • 14 th and 15 th Amendment remained – 14 th – granted citizenship to all people – 15 th – cannot prevent voting rights based on color