- Slides: 12
Reconstruction: 1865 -1877 What should we do with the Southern states ? • PLAN 1: • MODERATE REPUBLICAN PLAN (LINCOLN and his VP Andrew Johnson): • 1. RESTORE the UNION immediately WITHOUT a focus on the rights of free blacks
PLAN 2 • RADICAL REPUBLICANS want: • • 1. To punish the SOUTH • 2. To guarantee rights for free blacks • Lincoln was politically powerful and the radicals could not do what they wanted at first
MODERATE RECONSTRUCTION 1862 -1866 LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION ACTUALLY HELPS FREE BLACKS • ABRAHAM LINCOLN • 10% PLAN: Let Rebel States back in the Union when 10% pledge loyalty • Restore the UNION QUICKLY! • 13 th Amendment: Abolishes slavery
Problems with Lincoln’s Plan • Free Blacks do not get: – Economic support – Protection from southern whites – Land supplies to farm on their own Lincoln was so eager to restore the Union he was willing to re-admit Southern states without guaranteeing the rights of free Blacks
MODERATE RECONSTRUCTION ends 1866! • LINCOLN ASSASSINATED: New Pres: ANDREW JOHNSON • Wants to continue LINCOLN’S PLAN • POLITICALLY WEAK! • JOHNSON LOSES CONTROL OF RECONSTRUCTION!!!!
RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION 1866 -1876 • Radicals gain control of Congress and RECONSTRUCTION • Override all of Johnson’s vetoes • Johnson impeached but not convicted
Achievements of RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION • FREEDMAN’S BUREAU helps free blacks with food and housing • 14 th Amendment: EQUAL protection ALL CITIZENS • 15 th Amendment: Voting Rights ALL CITIZENS
Freedmen’s Bureau School
Black & White Political Participation Which states do you think had the first black government officials?
TRIUMPHS OF RECONSTRUCTION For a brief period: -FREE Black men could vote and hold office -Black FREE Black men elected to the US Congress men were even elected to Congress
Radical Reconstruction Falls Apart • 1877 US Army removed from the SOUTH. • White racist SOUTHERNERS TAKE Control of govt. • Ku Klux Klan (KKK) intimidates free Blacks • Southerners create BLACK CODES: Laws that restrict the freedom of free blacks (almost like slavery)
BIGGEST FAILURE OF RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION: Blacks were given POLITICAL freedom but never ECONOMIC FREEDOM • Never got the supplies and training they needed • Never given “ 40 acres and a mule” • Blacks were forced to go back to work for their former masters