- Slides: 34
RECONSTRUCTION 1865 - 1877
Rebuilding the South • The process of bringing the former Confederate states back into the Union • Difficult process – much of the South had been destroyed by the war…farms, towns, cities, railroads, and more. • The Southern economy was in shambles. • Because of the many dead bodies, there was disease and little medical care.
Problems of Reconstruction • Families were broken – husbands/ fathers had died in the war. • There was much starvation. • There was no real government outside of the occupying Union Army. • On top of all of this was the question of “what to do with the former slaves? ”
Two Plans • Lincoln’s Plan – “charity for all, malice toward none” • 10 % plan – amnesty (pardon) for any Southerners who had participated in the rebellion (rebellion of individuals). – Swear an oath of loyalty to the U. S. A. – Agree that slavery was illegal
Lincoln’s Plan • Once 10 % of a states voters made the pledge, the state could be readmitted to the Union.
The Congressional Plan • The Wade – Davis Bill • To be readmitted to the Union… – Southern states had to outlaw slavery. – A majority of the states adult male population had to take the loyalty oath. – Only Southerners who swore that they had never supported the Confederacy could vote and/or hold office. – Lincoln vetoed the bill.
13 th Amendment • January 31, 1865 – Congress passed the 13 th Amendment which ended slavery in the U. S. • African-Americans were free…. to do what? – – – They were illiterate. They had no place to live. They had no money. They had no jobs. Their families were broken.
The Freedmen’s Bureau • 40 acres and a mule – should former slaves be given land in the South to farm? • Government help - the federal government (Oliver Otis Howard) stepped in to help provide food, shelter, education, job training, and legal assistance.
Lincoln Assassinated • April 14, 1865 – Ford’s Theater Washington, D. C. – watching the play “Our American Cousin” • Shot in the back of the head by famous actor John Wilkes Booth (Confederate Sympathizer)
The Death of Lincoln • After shooting Lincoln, Booth yelled “Sic semper tyrannis” and “the South is avenged”. • Booth then leapt from the balcony to the stage, breaking his leg in the fall (his leg was later set by Dr. Mudd. ) (Your name will be mud!) • He was later captured and executed (or was he? )
Johnson and Reconstruction • Lincoln’s V. P. Andrew Johnson became president. • Johnson basically followed Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction. • Johnson believed that he as president should personally pardon Southerners for rebelling. (he pardoned over 7, 000 by 1866).
Radical Republicans • This angered many of Johnson’s fellow Republicans. • They felt that he was being too easy on Southerners. • Many former Confederates came back into power under Johnson’s plan. • Radical Republicans began to take action to stop Johnson and to punish the former Confederates.
Black Codes Section 2 • Black Codes – laws that greatly limited the new freedoms gained by African Americans. • Examples: – Work Contracts (similar to slavery) – Arrested for unemployment – Forced to work without pay – No owning guns – No renting property
Radicals Respond • Radical Republicans – wanted the government to force change in the South. • They wanted: – – To abolish Black Codes More government involvement in Reconstruction Economic and political justice for African Americans To help poor white southerners • The Radicals opposed President Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction.
Stephens and Sumner • Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania led the Radical Republicans in the House. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts led them in the Senate. • Both felt that Congress needed to run Reconstruction. • Under the Constitution, Congress is given the power to add new states. • Since the Southern states had left the union, they had to be readmitted as “new” states.
14 th Amendment • In 1866, Congress passed the 14 th amendment to protect the rights gained by African-Americans. • The amendment – forbade states from depriving any citizen of the “equal protection of the laws” – barred many ex-Confederates from holding state or national office – threatened to reduce the South’s representation in Congress if black men continued to be kept from voting. – proposed that the federal government guarantee all Americans’ equality before the law regardless of race.
The Reconstruction Act • The Reconstruction Act consisted of 4 major items: – It threw out Southern state governments who refused to ratify 14 th amendment. – Each state had to ratify the 14 th amendment and write new constitutions before rejoining the Union. – It divided the South into 5 military districts. – African Americans must be allowed to vote.
15 th Amendment • African–American men were given the right to vote. • African-Americans began to be voted into government at all levels.
Johnson Impeached • President Johnson was impeached on the vague charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors for violating the Tenure of Office Act. • He had removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office without Congressional consent.
Saved • Andrew Johnson was saved from being removed from office by one vote in his Senate Trial. • Edmund Ross was a Senator from Ohio who cast the decisive vote. • Johnson went on to finish his term, but did not run for reelection in 1868.
Section 3 Carpetbaggers • Name used by Southerners to refer to Northerners who went South after the Civil War (due to the fact many of them arrived with their belongings in suitcases made of tapestry).
It’s in the Bag • Carpetbaggers headed South for a variety of reasons. – To help poor southerners and freed slaves. – To invest in the post-war South – To take advantage of the chaos – To assist in reconstructing the South (government)
Scalawags • A term referring to White Southern Republicans or Southerners who helped Northerners during Reconstruction. • Many White Southerners thought that they were traitors (scallywag). • In fact, many were simply Southerners who had never support secession.
Black Leadership • Blache K. Bruce – represented Mississippi as a Republican U. S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 • Hiram Revels – was the first African American to serve in the U. S. Senate (1870 -1871).
KKK • The first Klan was founded in 1865 by veterans of the Confederate Army. Its purpose was to restore white supremacy in the aftermath of the Civil War. • The Klan resisted Reconstruction by intimidating Freedmen and Carpetbaggers • The KKK quickly adopted violent methods. • The organization declined in the late 1800 s largely due to President Grant’s power to use the Union Army against them under the Force Acts.
Panic of 1873 • The period after the Civil War was one of extreme growth with the government playing no role in regulating business. • The extreme overbuilding of the nation’s railroad system, more than any other single event, laid the groundwork for the Panic and the depression that followed. • Recovery was not realized until 1879. • It shifted the focus from Reconstruction to fixing the nation’s economy.
Compromise of 1877 • Settled the disputed 1876 Presidential Election (Oregon, Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana had sent in two different sets of electoral votes). • Since the Electoral College had failed, Constitutionally it was the duty of the House of Representatives to select the President. • The House set up a committee of 15 members to pick the president. • In a “shady” deal Rutherford B. Hayes the Republican candidate was given the presidency over the Democrat Samuel Tilden. • To appease White Southern Democrats, Hayes would remove the federal troops that were stationed in Southern states.
Redeemers • Fueled by the Compromise the 1877, White Southern Democrats began to take over Southern state governments from carpetbaggers, scalawags, and blacks. • As the Redeemers took over the South, Southern blacks saw the promises of the Civil War and Reconstruction disappear. • The North lost interest in the problems of Southern Blacks due to industrialization, mass immigration, recession, and westward expansion.
Jim Crow • Jim Crow laws were enacted in Southern States between 1876 and 1965. • The laws created a segregated society based on race. • In all public facilities, blacks and whites were separated.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • • • In 1892, Plessy purchased a ticket for a train in Louisiana. He took a seat in the “Whites Only” rail car. Plessy was told to leave the car but refused. He was immediately arrested. His case eventually made it to the U. S. Supreme Court (challenging Jim Crow Laws). • The Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. The finding allowed for 58 more years of legalized discrimination against blacks in the United States.
Farming • With slavery outlawed, Southern Blacks could not find work nor could White plantation owners afford to pay them. • As a result, sharecropping, a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land. • Since Blacks were illiterate, White landowners took advantage of them, keeping them poor and tied to the land.
Industry • With cotton beginning to return, textile mills became an obvious early industry to set up in the South. • Soon, other industries followed. • Steel production, timbering, and light manufacturing began to take root in the “New South”.
Results of Reconstruction • It was largely a failure. – Ongoing struggle with race issues – Economically the South would lag behind the rest of the nation for nearly 100 years – Formation of the KKK – North/South wounds never quite healed
Results of Reconstruction • On the positive side. – Ending of slavery – Improved public education – Improved status of women in Southern society – More people were able to own land – Crop diversification/industrialization