- Slides: 14
Radiation By Dr. Ali Saleh
Radiation Hazards • Radiation is a source of internal exposure, and external exposure comes from such sources as sunlight and manmade or naturally occurring radioactive materials.
Radiation Hazards Definition n A dose is the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed per unit of mass by part of the body or the whole body. Rad - measure of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by body tissues stated in terms of the amount of energy absorbed per unit of mass of tissue. Rem - measure of the dose of ionizing radiation to body tissue stated in terms of its estimated biological effect relative to a dose of 1 roentgen (r) of X-rays.
Radiation Hazards n n Restricted area - any area to which access is restricted in an attempt to protect employees from exposure to radiation or radioactive materials. Personal monitoring devices are devices worn or carried by an individual to measure radiation doses received.
Radiation Ionizing radiation: • Alpha: – Low power – They do not penetrate the skin and can be shielded by a thin layer of paper or clothing – Will not cause any skin damage. • Beta: – Have greater penetrating power than an alpha particle – can travel a few centimeters into tissue – May cause skin injury
Ionizing radiation • Gamma: – High penetrating power. – Dense materials are needed to shield • X-rays: – High power – Commonly created in X-ray machines – Lower energy than Gamma
EXPOSURE OF EMPLOYEES TO RADIATION • total internal & external dose for employees may not exceed 5 rems per year. • total exposure limit of 0. 6 rem over the entire course of a pregnancy for female employees.
CAUTION SIGNS AND LABELS Require caution signs in: Ø Radiation areas Ø High-radiation areas Ø Airborne radiation areas Ø Areas which contain radioactive materials Ø Containers in which radioactive materials are stored or transported
Radiation in health care Applications of radiation in treatment or prevention include: – Diagnostic radiology – Therapeutic radiology and nuclear medicine – Dermatology – Laboratories – Oncology – Areas where radioactive materials are stored or discarded
Radiation Effects • Radiation effects depends on: – The nature or type of radiation – The dose and duration of exposure – Whether the source is internal or external to the body. • Effects of exposure may not be seen for many years. • Effects e. g. : – – – – Skin reddening Cancer death Nausea Vomiting Leukemia Loss of fertility
Safety precautions of radiation • Time (decrease the amount of time spent near the source of radiation) • Distance (increase distance from a radiation source) • Shielding (increase shielding between a person’s body and the radiation source)
Therapeutic Radiation Safety Procedures Attach precaution tags to the bed, chart, and patient. Patients should care for themselves as much as possible. Do not allow visitors to get closer than 6 feet to the patient. Do not assign pregnant workers to routine care duties for radioactive patients. • Dispose of contaminated clothing and equipment in a proper manner. • Limits the time that a worker can spend with a patient. • •
General Radiographic Procedures • Be sure all walls and barriers are sufficiently protective. • Permit only patients in unshielded areas when x-rays are generated. • Require technicians to remain in a booth or behind a shield barrier. • Never allow a person to hold or restrain a patient undergoing diagnostic radiology unless absolutely necessary.
General Radiographic Procedures • Always provide protective gear. • Be sure operators using portable x-ray machines remain at least 6 feet away from the patient.