- Slides: 30
Quran Compilation, Transmission & Preservation
What Is the Qur’an? Primary source of guidance for Muslims Revealed to prophet Muhammad through angel Gabriel The Last Revelation of Allah (The God) to Humanity Preserved in original language (Arabic) and dialect (Qureshi)
Arabia in 610 C. E. 'In the ancient times, when writing was scarcely used, memory and oral transmission was exercised and strengthened to a degree now almost unknown' Michael Zwettler. (Oral tradition of Classical Arabic Poetry, p. 14. Ohio State Press: 1978
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh*) The First Memorizer of the complete Quran [O prophet!] Do not move your tongue swiftly to acquire this [Qur’an]. Verily, upon us is its collection and recital. So when we have recited it, follow this recital [of ours]. Then upon us is to explain it [wherever need be]. (Qur’an, 75: 16 -19) 'Gabriel used to repeat the recitation of the Qur'an with Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) once a year, but he repeated it twice with him in the year he (Prophet) died' Abu Hurayrah, collected in Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6. 520
First Generation of Memorizers Companions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) 'Some of the companions who memorized the Quran were: 'Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Ibn Masud, Abu Huraira, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Amr bin al-As, Aisha, Hafsa, and Umm Salama'. Jalal al-Din Suyuti, 'Al-Itqan fiulum al-Quran, Vol. I, p. 124 'Allah Messenger (Muhammed) said to me (Abdullah bin Mas'ud): "Recite (of the Quran) to me". I said: "Shall I recite it to you although it had been revealed to you? !" He Said: "I like to hear (the Quran) from others". Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6. 106
Second Generation Memorizers "…Quranic schools were set up everywhere. In the second Muslim generation, Ibn 'Amir, was the judge of Damascus under the caliph Umar Ibn 'Abd al-Aziz. It is reported that in his school for teaching the Qur'an there were 400 disciples to teach in his absence". [Ibn al Jazari, Kitab al-Nash fi al-Qir'at al-Ashr, Cairo, al-Halabi, n. d. _ vol. 2, p. 254
Memorizers in Subsequent Generations The number of Katatib and similar schools in Cairo (Egypt) alone at one time exceeded two thousand. Labib as-Said, The Recited Koran, 1975, pg. 59.
Quran Memorization Schools: Chicago, USA - example Muslim Community Center, Chicago IIF at Elgin Islamic Center, Chicago Jame’ Masjid, Chicago Northside Mosque, Chicago Masjid Hameedia, Chicago Masjid e Rahmat, Chicago Masjid e Noor, Chicago Masjid Al-Taqwa, Chicago Masjid e Kausar, Chicago 100 s of Quranic Memorization schools exist in USA, a non-Muslim country. 1000 s of these schools exist in Muslim countries.
Conclusion Qur’an Memorization "The method of transmitting the Quran from one generation to the next by having he young memorize the oral recitation of their elders had mitigated somewhat from the beginning the worst perils of relying solely on written records…" The fact of hifz (Quranic Memorization) has made the Qur'an a present possession through all the lapse of Muslim time and given it a human currency in every generation never allowing its relegation to a bare authority for reference alone". John Burton, An Introduction to the Hadith, Edinburgh University Press: 1994, p. 27. Kenneth Cragg, The Mind of the Qur'an, George Allan & Unwin: 1973, p. 26.
Conclusion - Memorization 1. Prophet Muhammad (s) was the first memorizer of the entire Quran 2. 100 s of his companions memorized the whole Quran 3. Some of his wives memorized the whole Quran 4. 1000 s in each generation memorized it without any gap 5. 10 million Muslims are currently alive who memorized the whole Quran 6. Thus Quran is perfectly preserved through memorization
Written Qur’an During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) commanded his companions: ‘do not write anything from me except the Qur’an. ’ Compiled by Muslim Prophet Muhammad (s) did not knew how to read and write, thus he used to call his scribes to write down the Quran for him whenever he received a new revelation from Allah (The God)
Written Qur’an During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad Narrated by al-Bara': There was revealed 'Not equal are those believers…’ (4: 95). The Prophet said: 'Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the ink pot and scapula bone. ' Then he (Prophet) said: 'Write: Not equal are those believers…‘Bukhari, 6. 512 Above is an example of Prophet Muhammad (s) calling one of his scribes when he received a revelation Narrated Yazid bin Al Ubaid” ’I used to accompany Salama bin Al-Akwa' and he used to pray behind the pillar which was near the place where the Qur'ans were kept. I said, "O Abu Muslim! I see you always seeking to pray behind this pillar. " He replied, "I saw Allah's Apostle always seeking to pray near that pillar. “Bukhari 1. 481 The above narration confirms the fact that the written copy of the Quran was present in a book form during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (s)
So, What is the significance of having the whole written Quran during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammed (s)? Prophet Muhammed (s) authenticated this written copy. Any mistake in writing the original can be checked and corrected by Prophet Muhammad (s) Copies were made from this original by people who were memorizers, thus preserving its purity. No previous religious personality can verify the holy scripture written about him (example Prophet Jesus was not around when the first Gospel was written down. Prophet Moses was not around when the Torah (first 5 books of the Bible were written, obituary of Moses is present in Duet. 34, Moses cannot have writen his own obituary!)
So, What is the significance of having the whole written Quran during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammed (s)? The above is unlike the New-Testament, Old Testament, Hindu scriptures, Buddhist scriptures, all were written down AFTER their main person (founder) left the world, thus the later writers can interpolate and edit the original sayings. Since no other book was memorized and written down as the Quran, then the check and balance system of correcting the copying errors is lacking in other scriptures (except the Quran) and resulted in their defective transmission. An altered, defective, less then 100% authentic scripture, cannot be trusted for our salvation. Thus, we can safely set aside all other books for our salvation except the Quran.
Written Qur’an Private copies of Companions of the Prophet Muhammed 'A list of companions possessing their own written copies of the Qur’an included the following: Ibn Mas'ud, Ubay bin Ka'b, Ali, Ibn Abbas, Abu Musa, Hafsa, Anas bin Malik, Umar, Zaid bin Thabit, Ibn Al. Zubair, Abdullah ibn Amr, Aisha, Salim, Umm Salama, Ubaid bin Umar'. Ibn Abi Dawud, Masahif, p. 14.
Qur’an Manuscript From 1 st Century of Islam (7 th Century) Script : Kufi Masq Dimension : 16 x 33 cm Copying date : 1 st/2 nd centuries Surah (Chapter) name : Surat al-Isra Verses number : from 20 to 22 and part of 23 Comparing the ancient manuscripts of the Quran with our current copies No Change in number of chapters, verses or words!
Qur’an Manuscripts Script : Italic Kufi Dimension : 50 x 36 cm Copying date : 1 st / 2 nd centuries Surah name : Surat al Kahf Verses number : Part of 17 to 27 and part of 28 Comparing the ancient manuscripts of the Quran with our current copies No Change in number of chapters, verses or words!
Qur’an Manuscripts Script : Kufi Masahif Dimension : 32 x 24 cm Copying date : 2 nd / 3 rd centuries Surah name : Surat al-Nas Verses number : part of 3 to the end of the surah
Qur’an Manuscripts Script : Kufi Masahif Dimension : 16 x 36 cm Copying date : 1 st / 2 nd century Surah name : Surat al- Mumtahina Verses number : Part of 4 to 8 and part of 9 Comparing the ancient manuscripts of the Quran with our current copies No Change in number of chapters, verses or words!
Qur’an Manuscripts Script : Kufi Masahif Dimension : 39 x 36 CM Copying date : 2 nd Century Surah name : Surat al Tawba, surat Yunus Verses number : part of 129 from surat al Tawba to 3 and part of 4 from surat Yunus Comparing the ancient manuscripts of the Quran with our current copies No Change in number of chapters, verses or words!
The Versailles Treaty [WW I] Section II, Article 246 Within six months from the coming into force of the present treaty, Germany will restore to his majesty the king of the Hedjaz the original Koran of the caliph Othman, which was removed from medina by the Turkish authorities and is stated to have been presented to the ex-emperor William II. http: //history. acusd. edu/ gen/text/versaillestreaty/verconte nts. htm[University of San Diego] [June 28, 1919] In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the Treaty Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the U. S. Even non-Muslim nations acknowledge that Muslims possess the Original Quran written down in the time of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (s).
Preservation of the Qur'an "There is probably no other book in the world which has remained twelve centuries (now fourteen) with so pure a text". • _______ Sir William Muir, Life of Mohamet, vol. 1, Introduction. (1861 CE) Quran: Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Preservation of the Quran ‘What we have today in our hands is the Mushaf (is like the original manuscript) of Muhammad. ’ John Burton, The Collection Of The Qur'ân, 1977, Cambridge University Press, pp. 239 -240.
Allah (swt) Is Quran’s Protector 'We* (Allah) have, without doubt, send down the Message; and We will assuredly Guard it (from corruption)' Quran 15: 9 ‘We’ is the plural of authority and respect and not the plural of ‘trinity’ or more than one.
Conclusion 1. Entire Quran is Preserved through memory in each generation from Muhammad’s (s) to ours. 2. Written copies copied from the original Quran of Muhammad (s) still exist for verification and authentication 3. Any copying errors by the copyist is caught and corrected by the memorizers of the Quran 4. Any mistake in recitation by a memorizer is corrected by fellow memorizer & by written copies of the Quran 5. Multi-layered system of check and balance to protect Quran from getting corrupted (this check and balance system is lacking for any other book, religious or secular!) 6. Quran is recited from memory by Muslims in the daily prayers. 7. Entire Quran is recited and listened to by Muslims once each year during the month of Ramadan (Fasting) 6. Allah is the ultimate preserver of the Quran
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