QUARTER 1 Vocab and Grammar Lit Devices Quarter

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QUARTER 1 Vocab and Grammar

QUARTER 1 Vocab and Grammar

Lit Devices –Quarter 1 A Metaphor—Figure of speech in which one thing is compared

Lit Devices –Quarter 1 A Metaphor—Figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another. Formula: One thing is another thing. Simile—Comparing two unlike things using “like” or “as”

 Allusion: a reference to something outside the text that the reader is expected

Allusion: a reference to something outside the text that the reader is expected to know; provides additional information; may become a symbol. Poetry—Literary work in which feelings and ideas are expressed through rhythm and style.

 synecdoche – a part that represents a whole anaphora: the repetition of a

synecdoche – a part that represents a whole anaphora: the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. imagery: words or phrases a writer selects to create a certain picture in the reader’s mind, usually based on sensory details

 Personification: non-human objects with human-like qualities (figuratively). diction: The distinctive vocabulary of a

Personification: non-human objects with human-like qualities (figuratively). diction: The distinctive vocabulary of a particular author.

 Denotation- the definition of a word Connotation - additional meanings a word has,

Denotation- the definition of a word Connotation - additional meanings a word has, besides its definition

Quarter 1 B

Quarter 1 B

 Rhythm—A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound Symbol—An object that represents

Rhythm—A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound Symbol—An object that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract.

 Rhyme—Correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words. Alliteration—repetition of sounds

Rhyme—Correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words. Alliteration—repetition of sounds in the first syllables in a phrase of words. (ie: from stem to stern).

 Genre—a category of literature, music, or art that is characterized by a particular

Genre—a category of literature, music, or art that is characterized by a particular style, form, or content. Major Genre—Novel, poem, drama, short story, novella. Minor Genre: specific subdivision of major genre

 foreshadowing: a hint of future events in a story juxtaposition: two ideas, characters

foreshadowing: a hint of future events in a story juxtaposition: two ideas, characters or things placed together to create contrast Motif: any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a story.

 oxymoron: figure of speech that combines contradictory terms example: Dark light Mad wisdom

oxymoron: figure of speech that combines contradictory terms example: Dark light Mad wisdom Mournful optimist hyperbole: figure of speech that uses great exaggeration pun: a joke using double meaning or words that sound alike.

Vocabulary Conflict—a struggle or tension between two forces or characters. � Person v. Person

Vocabulary Conflict—a struggle or tension between two forces or characters. � Person v. Person � Person v. Nature � Person v. Self � Person v. Supernatural � Person v. Society

Vocabulary Main Idea—The most important part of a work of literature. Theme—a unifying or

Vocabulary Main Idea—The most important part of a work of literature. Theme—a unifying or dominant idea throughout a work of literature.

Plot Parts Plot: a series of events that tell a story(short stories usually have

Plot Parts Plot: a series of events that tell a story(short stories usually have one, novels several) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Exposition: beginning of story, tells character, setting, mood Central Conflict: basic problem of story Rising Action: attempts to solve problem Climax: the point when the problem is solved or unsolvable (turning point) Falling Action: events immediately after the climax Resolution: reactions to climax

Plot Pyramid

Plot Pyramid

Quarter 2

Quarter 2

Quarter 2 Literary Devices Blank Verse: a unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter Parellelism: a

Quarter 2 Literary Devices Blank Verse: a unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter Parellelism: a balance of similar phrases that have the same grammatical structure Ex. Of the people, by the people, for the people Rhyme: words with the same ending vowel or consonant sound

 Stanza: the arrangement of lines in poetry, separated by rhyme scheme or spacing

Stanza: the arrangement of lines in poetry, separated by rhyme scheme or spacing Couplet— two lines Tercet— three lines Quatrain— four lines Cinquain— five lines Sestet— six lines Septet— seven lines Octave— eight lines

 Alliteration—repetition of sounds in the first syllables in a phrase of words. (ie:

Alliteration—repetition of sounds in the first syllables in a phrase of words. (ie: from stem to stern). anaphora: the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.

Quarter 3 A

Quarter 3 A

 Tragic hero-Protagonist of a tragedy, who will eventually suffer a downfall

Tragic hero-Protagonist of a tragedy, who will eventually suffer a downfall

Vocabulary Plot Pyramid—a tool that allows readers to chart the important events of a

Vocabulary Plot Pyramid—a tool that allows readers to chart the important events of a story chronologically. Characterization—word picture: a graphic or vivid verbal description of a character.

 Forshadowing: the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the

Forshadowing: the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the narrative Tragic Flaw: the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall

 Point of View—the narrator’s position in relation to the story being told. �

Point of View—the narrator’s position in relation to the story being told. � 1 st person—perspective using ‘I’ or ‘We’ � 2 nd person—perspective using ‘you’ � 3 rd person—perspective using ‘he/she/it, ’ and ‘they’

 Protagonist: character that attempts to achieve or change something Antagonist: character that attempts

Protagonist: character that attempts to achieve or change something Antagonist: character that attempts to stop someone or something

Assonance: The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words. Consonance: the

Assonance: The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words. Consonance: the repetition of consonant sounds; more specifically, the repetition of the final consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words.

 paradox – contradictory ideas meant to fit together double entendre – a word

paradox – contradictory ideas meant to fit together double entendre – a word that carries multiple definitions

 Metaphor: �A metaphor is a figure of speech that says that one thing

Metaphor: �A metaphor is a figure of speech that says that one thing is another different thing. This allows us to use fewer words and forces the reader or listener to find the similarities. The word metaphor comes from the Greek word metapherin (meaning "transfer"). The simplest form of metaphor is: "The [first thing] is a [second thing]. " Look at this example: “Her home was a prison.

Metaphor Example Metaphorical Sense Literal Sense America is a melting pot. A place where

Metaphor Example Metaphorical Sense Literal Sense America is a melting pot. A place where different people, styles and cultures mix. A container in which metals or other materials are melted and mixed. My father is a rock. A very strong or reliable person. A hard, mineral material made of stone. The policeman let him off with a yellow card. Warning (in soccer) a yellow car that the referee shows to players when cautioning them.

Lit Devices Allegory - A story, poem, or picture which can be interpreted to

Lit Devices Allegory - A story, poem, or picture which can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. Sometimes, animals are used to represent humans. (Aesop, according to legend, was put to death for using allegory to criticize the powerful. )

 What is the speaker’s attitude toward the action of building a wall? Who

What is the speaker’s attitude toward the action of building a wall? Who is the actual inventor of the saying “Good Fences Make Good Neighbors? ” What does this reveal about the neighbor?

Symbol something that is itself and represents something else

Symbol something that is itself and represents something else

Indirect Characterization the act of revealing a character through hints or clues

Indirect Characterization the act of revealing a character through hints or clues

Metaphor direct comparison between dissimilar things

Metaphor direct comparison between dissimilar things

Irony When what "is" goes against expectations

Irony When what "is" goes against expectations

Verbal Irony when what is said is opposite of what is meant (sarcasm)

Verbal Irony when what is said is opposite of what is meant (sarcasm)

Direct Characterization author tells us what type of person the character is

Direct Characterization author tells us what type of person the character is

Simile indirect comparison that uses like or as

Simile indirect comparison that uses like or as

Situational Irony when an event occurs contrary to expectations

Situational Irony when an event occurs contrary to expectations

Foreshadowing the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the narrative

Foreshadowing the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the narrative

Dramatic Irony when an audience knows important information beyond what the character(s) knows

Dramatic Irony when an audience knows important information beyond what the character(s) knows

Figure of Speech devices that enable the writer to operate on levels other than

Figure of Speech devices that enable the writer to operate on levels other than the literal

 Enjambment—the continuation of a sentence or clause over a line break.

Enjambment—the continuation of a sentence or clause over a line break.

Rite of Passage any important act or event that serves to mark a passage

Rite of Passage any important act or event that serves to mark a passage from one stage of life to another.

Characterization the act of revealing a character

Characterization the act of revealing a character

Idiom an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of the

Idiom an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of the words (i. e. , kick the bucket. )

10/11 Bonus Quiz On a separate sheet of loose leaf, answer each question with

10/11 Bonus Quiz On a separate sheet of loose leaf, answer each question with the correct answer: 1. what is the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall? 2. What is the most important part of a work of literature? 3. What is the figure of speech that says one thing is another thing? 4. what is the struggle between two forces or characters? 5. what is the use of a variety of communication techniques that create an emotional appeal to accept a particular belief or opinion?