Qualitative Research Qualitative Research n n Qualitative research

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Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research n n Qualitative research is an array of interpretive techniques which seek

Qualitative Research n n Qualitative research is an array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world. Data Collection and Data Analysis Stages Data collection – focus group, in-depth interviews, case studies, observation, etc. Data Analysis – content analysis, behavioural observations, etc.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Objective To gain a qualitative understanding

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Objective To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Sample Small number of nonrepresentative cases Large number of representative cases Data Collection Unstructured Structured Data Analysis Non-statistical Statistical Outcome Develop an initial understanding Recommend a final course of action

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Researcher involvement Sampling Qualitative Research Quantitative Research High Limited Small number

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Researcher involvement Sampling Qualitative Research Quantitative Research High Limited Small number of nonrepresentative cases – Non probability Large number of representative cases - probability Research Design Multiple and longitudinal Pre-decided and cross-sectional Participation Pre-tasking No pre-tasking Data Types Verbal Codes Numerical Codes In-depth Limited Deeper Understanding Limited Understanding Insights Feedback

A Classification of Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Qualitative Data Descriptive Survey

A Classification of Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Qualitative Data Descriptive Survey Data Observational and Other Data Quantitative Data Causal Experimental Data

Framing Qualitative Research Question n Step 1: Discover Management Dilemma n n n Step

Framing Qualitative Research Question n Step 1: Discover Management Dilemma n n n Step 2: Define Management Question n Sales in many of firm’s established product categories are flat and need to increase revenues Literature Search and Expert Interview What new product categories pose the best opportunities for sales? What kind of positioning is required? Qualitative research – focus group, in-depth interviews, etc. Step 3: Define Research Question/s n n Does product A or B have the most potential for success? How should they be positioned in the market?

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Direct (Non disguised) Focus Groups Association Techniques Indirect

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Direct (Non disguised) Focus Groups Association Techniques Indirect (Disguised) Projective Techniques Depth Interviews Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques

Characteristics of Focus Group Size 6 -10 Group Composition Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened Physical Setting

Characteristics of Focus Group Size 6 -10 Group Composition Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened Physical Setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration 1 -2 hours Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction. 2. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. 3. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. 4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding.

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. 6. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process. 7. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level.

Factors influencing participant Contributions Positive / Facilitators 1. Recognition / ego enhancement – moderator’s

Factors influencing participant Contributions Positive / Facilitators 1. Recognition / ego enhancement – moderator’s expressed appreciation for participation and participant’s open agreement with other participant comments 2. Personal Contribution – participant’s perception that their contributions are helpful 3. Validation – participant’s need to have his/her feelings, attitudes or ideas validated 4. Load-Sharing – participant’s need to share something negative or bothersome with others 5. Personal Growth – participant’s desire to increase knowledge through discussion 6. Socialization – participant’s desire to meet new people 7. Expectations – participant’s accurate understanding of the purpose of the discussion 8. Extrinsic reward – participant’s desire for fee for participation

Factors influencing participant Contributions Nagative / Inhibitors 1. Use of abstract terminology – use

Factors influencing participant Contributions Nagative / Inhibitors 1. Use of abstract terminology – use of unfamiliar terminology or jargons 2. Ego threats – participant challenging other participant’s knowledge of the subject 3. Political correctness – participant’s withholding comments for fear that his comments might be perceived as disrespectful of another’s opinions 4. Ego defense - participant’s withholding comments for fear that his comments will make him appear unintelligent 5. Memory decay – participant’s failure to remember incidents 6. Embellishment – participant’s creative additions to incidents 7. Inarticulation – participant’s inability to express ideas quickly 8. Confusion – participant’s lack of understanding of the subject 9. Reticence – participant’s need to be invited for participation 10. Time – participant’s concern about other obligations 11. Dominating – participant’s attempting to take leadership

Advantages of Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Advantages of Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Synergism – Similar Groups Snowballing – Cross Arguments Stimulation – Excitements to give answers Security – Expressing Ideas Spontaneity – New Ideas Serendipity – Groups ideas Specialization – Expert Moderator Scientific scrutiny – Recording responses Structure - Flexibility Speed – Quick data collection

Disadvantages of Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Misuse Misjudge Moderation Messy Misrepresentation

Disadvantages of Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Misuse Misjudge Moderation Messy Misrepresentation

Venues for Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. Telephone Focus Group Online Focus Group Videoconferencing

Venues for Focus Groups 1. 2. 3. Telephone Focus Group Online Focus Group Videoconferencing Focus Group

Characteristics of In-depth Inteviews Group Size Individual Character Knowledgeable, interested Physical Setting informative, CAPI,

Characteristics of In-depth Inteviews Group Size Individual Character Knowledgeable, interested Physical Setting informative, CAPI, CPTI Time Duration 20 minutes to 2 hours Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator

Forms of Interview n n n Unstructured Interview – no specific questions or order

Forms of Interview n n n Unstructured Interview – no specific questions or order of topics to be discussed, with each interview customized to each participant; generally starts with a participant narrative Semi-structured interview – generally starts with a few specific questions and then follows the individual’s tangents of thought with interviewer findings Structured interview – uses a detailed interview guide similar to a questionnaire to guide the question order and the specific way the questions are asked, but the questions generally remain open-ended

Types of Interview Individual Interview Objectives n n In-depth information Test a survey Topics

Types of Interview Individual Interview Objectives n n In-depth information Test a survey Topics Concerned n n Detailed individual experiences, choices, biographies Sensitive issues that might provoke anxiety Participants n n n Time-pressed participants or those difficult to recruit Participants having sufficient language skills Participants whose distinctions would slow down participation

Types of Interview Group Interview Objectives n n n Orientation towards field of inquiry

Types of Interview Group Interview Objectives n n n Orientation towards field of inquiry To explore attitudes, opinions and behaviors Gaining contextual detail to quantitative findings Topics Concerned n n Issues of public interest or common concern Issues where little is known Participants n n n Participants background must create conflict or discomfort Having brainstorming ability Having analytical ability

Types of Research Using IDIs Types How to conduct Research How research is used

Types of Research Using IDIs Types How to conduct Research How research is used Oral History Ask part. To relate their personal exp. and feelings of events To develop products Cultural Interviews Relate experiences with a culture and subculture To determine product positioning or advertising creation Life Histories Relate memories since childhood exp. & devel. of personalities To determine advertising development and positioning Critical Incident Technique Ask about causes and effects of incident happened To study the cause of effects of succ. /unsucc. Marketing campaign Convergent Interviewing Experts are used as participants in Mainly useful in exploratory study a series of IDIs Sequential Interviewing Asking series of questions of related topic To determine the marketing strategies of product/firm Ethnography Interviewer and participant collaborate in unstructured inter. To determine product redesign, advertising, positioning, etc. Grounded Theory Subsequent interview conducted based on past interview To determine product redesign, advertising, positioning, etc.

Responsibilities of an Interviewer n n n n n Recommends the topics and questions

Responsibilities of an Interviewer n n n n n Recommends the topics and questions Controls the interview, the location and facilities Proposes the criteria for drawing the samples Writes the recruitment screener and may recruit participants Develops the various pretasking exercises Prepares any research tools Supervises the transcription process Helps analyze the data and draws insights Writes or directs the writing of the client report

Focus Group vs Depth Interview Characteristics Focus Group Depth Interview Group Synergy and Dynamics

Focus Group vs Depth Interview Characteristics Focus Group Depth Interview Group Synergy and Dynamics + _ Peer Pressure/Group Influence _ + Client involvement + _ Generation of innovative ideas + _ In-depth probing of individuals _ + Uncovering hidden motives _ + Discussion of sensitive topics _ +

Focus Group vs Depth Interview Characteristics Focus Group Depth Interviewing respondents who are competitors

Focus Group vs Depth Interview Characteristics Focus Group Depth Interviewing respondents who are competitors _ + Interviewing respondents who are professionals _ + Scheduling of respondents _ + Amount of information + _ Bias in moderation and interpretation + _ Cost per respondent + _ Time (interviewing and analysis) + _

Definition of Projective Techniques n n n An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that

Definition of Projective Techniques n n n An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation.

Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one

Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. Responses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response; (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given; and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time.

Completion Techniques In Sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete

Completion Techniques In Sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. A person who shops at Sears is ___________ A person who receives a gift certificate good for Sak's Fifth Avenue would be _________________ J. C. Penney is most liked by _____________ When I think of shopping in a department store, I ____ A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase.

Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents are given part of a story – enough

Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.

Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series

Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques.

Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation

Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. Thematic Appreciation Test The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a “typical” person.

Expressive Techniques In Component Sorts, participants are presented with flash cards containing components features

Expressive Techniques In Component Sorts, participants are presented with flash cards containing components features and asked to create new combinations Sensory Sorts participants are presented with scents, textures and sounds, usually verbalized on cards and asked to arrange them one by one criteria Laddering or benefit chain participants are asked to link functional features to their physical and psychological benefits, both real and ideal Imagination Exercises participants are asked to relate the properties of one thing/person/brand to another

Expressive Techniques In imaginary universe, participants are asked to assume that the brand its

Expressive Techniques In imaginary universe, participants are asked to assume that the brand its users populate an entire universe; they then describe the features of this new world Visitor from another planet participants are asked to assume that they are aliens and are confronting the product for the first time; they then describe their reactions, questions and attitudes about purchase or retrials Personification Participants are asked to imagine inanimate objects with traits, characteristics and features, and personalities of humans In Authority Figure, participants are asked to imagine that the brand or product is an authority figure and to describe the attributes of the figure

Expressive Techniques Ambiguities and paradoxes participants are asked to imagine a brand as something

Expressive Techniques Ambiguities and paradoxes participants are asked to imagine a brand as something else, describing its attributes of the figure Semantic Mapping participants are presented with a four-quadrant map where different variables anchor the two different axes; they then spatially place brands, product components or organizations within the four quadrants Brand Mapping participants are presented with different brands and asked to talk about their perceptions, usually in relation to several criteria. They may also be asked to spatially place each brand on one or more semantic maps

Advantages of Projective Techniques n n n They may elicit responses that subjects would

Advantages of Projective Techniques n n n They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms. Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level.

Disadvantages of Projective Techniques n n n Suffer from many of the disadvantages of

Disadvantages of Projective Techniques n n n Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques to a greater extent. Require highly trained interviewers. Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. There is a serious risk of interpretation bias. They tend to be expensive. May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior.

Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques Criteria Focus Groups 1. Degree

Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques Criteria Focus Groups 1. Degree of Structure Relatively high 2. Probing of individual Low respondents 3. Moderator bias Relatively medium 4. Interpretation bias Relatively low 5. Uncovering Low subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative High information 7. Obtaining sensitive Low information 8. Involve unusual No behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Highly useful Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Relatively medium Relatively low High Medium Relatively high Low to high Relatively medium Relatively high Medium to high High Medium Low Medium High To a limited extent Useful Yes Somewhat useful